By Maria Dolores Luque Castro; Miguel Valcarcel Cases; M T Tena

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A Batch. B Mixed (batch-continuous), with a Soxhlet extractor. C Continuous, with and without recirculation steel components by electrolysis (oxidation). Finally, mechanical energy is frequently used in connection with the batch operational mode to effect vigorous shaking of the solid suspended in the extracting phase. Analytical leaching is typically carried out in the discrete or batch mode (Fig. 8A). The solid sample is placed in a vessel containing the extracting phase, where it is immersed.

Respectively. a, band c = critical curves. (Reproduced with permission of Elsevier) T Two-segment curve in Fig. 16, the critical curve can join the critical points of the pure components (CP] and CP2 ) directly (curve a) and via a minimum (curve b) or maximum (curve c) [3]. Under each curve, the system is heterogenous (liquid + vapour). At a pressure and temperature above each critical curve, the two components are completely miscible throughout the composition range and make up a binary supercritical fluid.

A similar profile is also obtained at a constant pressure Po lower than both critical pressures (Pel and Pe2 ). The crosssections obtained at pressures (Ph) and temperatures (Tb ) intermediate between the two critical pressures (Pc] and Pe2 ) and temperatures (Tel and Tc2 ), respectively, are different from the previous ones. These three-dimensional diagrams can be simplified by projecting on the PT plane the surface obtained from the different mixture compositions. The PT diagrams in Fig. 15 show the vapour pressure lines for the pure components, the two critical points (CP] and CP 2 ), the location of the critical points for the binary mixture (dashed line) and the lines reflecting the coexistence of three phases (dashed-dotted line).

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