By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen

The first accomplished archaeological survey of the Muskogee (Maskókî) Creek Indians.
The Muskogee Indians who lived alongside the reduce Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds had, and proceed to have, a profound impact at the improvement of the southeastern usa, specifically throughout the historical interval (circa 1540–1836). Our wisdom of that tradition is proscribed to what we will study from their descendants and from archaeological and old resources.
Combining ancient files and archaeological study on all recognized reduce Muskogee Creek websites, Thomas Foster has thoroughly pinpointed city destinations mentioned within the literature and said in modern Creek oral histories. In so doing, this quantity synthesizes the archaeological range and version in the decrease Creek Indians among 1715 and 1836. The ebook is a research of archaeological tools since it analyzes the temporal and geographic version inside of a unmarried archaeological part and the biases of that archaeological data. Foster's examine segregates the adaptation among reduce Creek Indian cities via a local and direct old method. hence, he's capable of determine the original variations among person Creek Indian towns. 
Foster argues that the learn of Creek Indian historical past could be on the point of cities rather than archaeological stages and that there's major continuity among the tradition of the old interval Indians and the Prehistoric and Protohistoric peoples.

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Extra info for Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836

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Recent research, which uses ecological modeling and ethnohistoric data, has indicated that the primary variable contributing to garden placement and duration was soil productivity (Foster 2003b). The produce from a town’s communal agricultural ¤elds was distributed among the families of the town. Since Creek Indians were matrilineal, adult females owned and worked the farmland (Foster 2003a:21). Individual plots were identi¤ed in the large communal ¤elds by borders between the plots, but everyone worked together on all plots during the planting.

We know that during the seventeenth century the Spanish traded with Indians living in the Apalachicoli province (Hann 1996:68). That province has the name that the Spanish attributed to the Indian towns distributed along what is now called the Chattahoochee River. The earliest town list for the Chattahoochee River region was made in 1675 by Bishop Gabriel Díaz Vara Calderón. It lists, in order from south to north, Chicahuti, Sabacola, Oconi, Apalachicoli, Ilapi, Tacusa, Usachi, Ocmulgui, Ahachito, Cazithto, Colomme, Cabita, and Cuchiguali (Hann 1988:362).

The Chattahoochee River was called the “Rio del Spiritu Santo” and the “Apalachicola River” by the Spanish, who viewed it from the south and were more familiar with the Apalachicola people who were settled to the south (Cumming and De Vorsey 1998:plate 24; Hann and McEwan 1998:33). In the early eighteenth century, it was also referred to as the “River Cusitie” on an English map. In this case the river is named after the Maskókî town of Cussetuh (Utley and Hemperly 1975:336). John Goff ’s article on the town of Chattahoochee contains other names (Utley and Hemperly 1975:338).

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