By Martin Blank (auth.), Bruno Andrea Melandri, Giulio Milazzo, Martin Blank (eds.)

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Extra info for Bioelectrochemistry IV: Nerve Muscle Function— Bioelectrochemistry, Mechanisms, Bioenergetics, and Control

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The time constants of passage from one to the other state are 'td for activation, 'tf for inactivation and 't r for recovery of inactivation. These time constants are generally governed by the potential difference for most ionic channels. 'tf for the Ca channel is also controlled by Ca 2+ ions accumulating at the intracellular mouth of the channel, so-called Ca2+-dependent Ca2+ inactivation. On the right are idealized single Ca 2+ channel openings. 34 VASSORT When the Ca 2+ channels are opened, Ca 2+ ions move according to their transmembrane potential difference Um- UCa -200 mY, where Urn, is the membrane potential, and UCa ' the NERNST equilibrium U-values for Ca 2+ have the values -80 mVand +120 mV respectively.

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An intrapore Ca 2 + binding site would provide a possible means of selection by affinity. If the site were located within the pore and acted as a station for Ca2+ ions moving from outside, occupation of this site by Ca 2+ would help the channel reject foreign cations. Moreover the more strongly an ion is bound, the more slowly does it leave the binding site. However, studies of the interaction between Ca2+ and Ca 2+-channels give widely different estimates of affinities, indicating that at least two Ca 2+-binding sites are associated with the Ca 2+-channel.

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