By David Kealey, P J Haines
Immediate Notes titles specialize in center info and are designed to aid undergraduate scholars come to grips with a subject matter quick and easily.Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry offers scholars with an intensive comprehension of analytical chemistry and its purposes. This publication helps the training of rules and perform of analytical systems. It additionally includes analytical ideas wide-spread in laboratories this present day.
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Extra resources for BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry
Examples of when this may be the case are if ● the amount of sample is so restricted as to allow only one determination by each of the two methods; ● the methods are to be compared for a series of samples containing different levels of analyte rather than replicating the analysis at one level only; ● samples are to be analyzed over a long period of time when the same experimental conditions cannot be guaranteed. It may therefore be essential or convenient to pair the results (one from each method) and use a paired t-test where t is deﬁned by 38 Section B – Assessment of data _ x t = ᎏd × N ⁄ sd 1 (3) 2 _ xd being the mean difference between paired values and sd the estimated standard deviation of the differences.
B4 – Calibration and linear regression 45 Example A calibration graph was prepared as part of a validation procedure for a new method to determine an active constituent of a sun cream by UV spectrophotometry. The following data were obtained: 0 Analyte conc. 123 The data is ﬁrst checked for linearity by calculation of the correlation coefﬁcient, r, and visual inspection of a plotted curve. Some calculators and computer software can perform the computation from the raw data, but it is instructive to show the full working, for which tabulation is preferable.
This is the square of the standard deviation, which is used in some statistical tests. An estimate of the overall precision of an analytical procedure can be made by combining the precisions of individual measurements. This is the range of values around an experimental result within which the true or accepted value is expected to lie with a deﬁned level of probability. Errors in analytical measurements (B1) These two characteristics of numerical data are the most important and the most frequently confused.