By P.A. Okken, Rob J. Swart, S. Zwerver

Rapidly expanding concentrations of greenhouse gases within the surroundings, rising proof of worldwide warming and the specter of uncontrollable weather suggestions mechan:i,sms are actually triggering overseas motion to minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. In 1989 the Intergovernmental Panel on weather switch (IPCC), demonstrated by means of the United countries surroundings seasoned­ gramme and the realm Meteorological association, begun arrangements for a world conference on weather. This conference is to be by means of protocols (agreements) at the aid of the emissions of greenhouse gases and different measures and implementation mechanisms to maintain the worldwide weather. After the CFC's, CO is the following in line, because the resources 2 and abatement measures for CH and N zero are as but insuffi­ four 2 ciently understood. even if, the abatement of CO . is a miles 2 attaining factor. it is going to require significant alterations wi skinny crucial sectors of the economic system: strength (production and use) and agriculture (deforestations and land use pat­ terns). Given this case it's not so superb that nationwide governments are hesitant to do so. One cause is the rest uncertainty in regards to the rat,e and the level of weather swap. despite the fact that, additional research will express that the uncertainties could be outweighed through the expanding dangers while measures to lessen the emission of greenhouse gases are delayed.

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M. 6 93 hospitals 21. m. 5 95 Social/CuI tural institutions 31. 8 92 I 96 97 98 00 I Research institution I I Other com-: I mon serI I vices I I I Residential sector 100 38 TABLE 4A. Potential savings means in The Netherlands. Sector Energy use (PJ) 1987 residential sector Agricultural sector Industry Transport sector (incl. 77 24,717 8,113 1,835 15,454 2421. 7 The mentioned sectors cover about 80% of the final energy use. Excluded are power generation, water supply and polder drainage. 39 TABLE 4B REDUCTION OF CO 2 DIFFERENT SECTORS.

V ~ 1900 ... 2000 .... / 2050 2100 time In years -------- 2000 response 2020 response 2010 response _ _ _ 2030 response Figure 4 sumed that emissions of trace gases would follow the emissions of the 2030 doubling case when no action would be taken to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore it is assumed that when the international decision would be taken and followed up to start co~trolling climate change, the policy target would be stabilization of concentrations in 2090 at double CO 2 -equivalent levels (the lowest IPCC-scenario).

Main elements are price and tariff policy, standards, the task setting of the utili ty companies, research and development, as well as transfer of knowledge and information. 2. Price, tariff and subsidy policy The analyses of the energy intensities of the economies of the western Countries have clearly proved a strong influence of the energy prices [1]. Regarding the issue of the promotion of a sustainable development, an economy with a low energy intensity, the first item to be thought of concerning the effectiveness must be price and tariff policy.

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