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Extra info for Concise Chemistry of the Elements
Out 27 Ty1>es of ex1>erimental radii Sec. 3] 150 0 I Se As Bro s 0 Si p Clo 100 50. 0 50 100 150 Fig. 2 Metallic radius The metallic radius, rmet· of an element is defined as equal to half the experimentally determined distance between the nuclei of nearest neighbour atoms in a metallic solid. The smaller the metallic radius the stronger is metallic bonding as measured by atomization energy and, approximately, by melting or boiling temperatures. out· Fig. 5 shows the dependence of rmet on rmax,out for a number of metallic elements.
The electronegativily of d block elements initially increases in each series and then becomes almost constant. 54). That is the reason why [Ch. -l Orbital energies and related properties 38 gold shows oxidation number -I and forms with caesium ( X = 0. 79) a salt-like compound Cst Au·-. ~ ::.. 5 0 10 0 Fig. Na ~A K 20 l Rb 30 Fr Cs 40 50 60 70 z 80 90 Depemknce or Pauling elel:tronegalivities Oil atomic number, Z. In generaL highly electronegati\"e elements react eagerly with highly electropositive elements and vice versa.
For instance, sulphur is di-, tetra- and hexavalent and shows oxidation numbers -2, +2, +-l and +6, while iodine shows oxidation numbers -1, + 1, + 3, + 5 and + 7. This raises three questions: - why Group 2 and 12 elements (except for dimeric cations of Group 12 elements) do not show the oxidation number+ l ; - why oxidation numbers of p block elements change as a rule by two units, while the oxidation states of d elements may change by one unit (after reaching oxidation state + 2 or + l, the latter in the case of Cu and Ag).