By M.T. Goodrich and R. Tamassia

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In the increment section, we declare the incrementing statement for the loop. The incrementing statement can be any legal statement, allowing for significant flexibility in coding. statement; increment; } except that, in Java, a while loop cannot have an empty Boolean condition, whereas a for loop can. 4. Control Flow 31 In the Java example above, the loop variable x was declared as int x = O. Before each iteration, the loop tests the condition" x < numApples" and executes the loop body only if this is true.

There are two fundamental types of casting that can be done in Java. We can either cast with respect to the base numerical types or we can cast with respect to objects. 1. For instance, it might be helpful to cast an int to a double in order to perform operations like division. Ordinary Casting When casting from a double to an int, we may lose precision. This means that the resulting double value will be rounded down. But we can cast an int to a double without this worry. 0 Casting with Operators Certain binary operators, like division, will have different results depending on the variable types they are used with.

The variables age, magical, and height are base types, the variable name is a reference to an instance of the built-in class String, and the variable gnomeBuddy is a reference to an ob­ ject of the class we are now defining. Our declaration of the instance variable MAX_HEIGHT in the Gnome class is taking advantage of these two modifiers to define a "variable" that has a fixed constant value. Indeed, constant values associ­ ated with a class should always be declared to be both static and final.

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