By Andy King, Michael A. Penman

Ordinary bills of Anglo-Scottish kinfolk over the total fourteenth century has a tendency to offer a sustained interval of sour enmity, defined usually by way of stock-phrases reminiscent of 'endemic warfare', and typified by way of battles resembling Bannockburn [1314], Neville's move [1346] or Otterburn [1388], border-raiding and the trap of James I of Scotland by means of English pirates in 1406. even though, as this assortment indicates, the location used to be way more advanced. Drawing jointly new views from new and top researchers, the essays examine the nice complexity of Anglo-Scottish tensions during this so much momentous of centuries and in doing so usually demonstrate a much more ambivalent and now and then even a calm and effective Anglo-Scottish dynamic. the themes taken care of comprise army campaigns and ethos; the advance of artillery; the top 'Disinherited' Anglo-Scot, Edward Balliol; Scots in English allegiance and Border Society; spiritual patronage; Papal relatives; the impression of dealings with Scotland on England's govt and parliament; id, ethnicity and otherness; and shared values and acculturation. individuals: AMANDA BEAM, MICHAEL BROWN, DAVID CALDWELL, GWILYM DODD, ANTHONY GOODMAN, ANDY KING, SARAH LAYFIELD, IAIN MACINNES, RICHARD ORAM, MICHAEL PENMAN, ANDREA RUDDICK AND DAVID SIMPKIN.

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Strickland (Stamford, 1998), 184–5. Ayton has observed that 60% of the English army at Antwerp in July 1338 was connected to the royal household. 20 Does the evidence for the 1310 campaign support this argument? 21 This hardly suggests that the king was struggling to attract followers. Yet on closer inspection it is evident that Edward’s household division was not nearly so strong. The largest retinues paid by the wardrobe were led not by feed retainers, but by leading aristocrats who had swallowed their pride and were in receipt of Crown pay.

Anne Curry and Michael Hughes (Woodbridge, 1994), 22. 63 See N. B. Lewis, ‘The Summons of the English Feudal Levy, 5 April 1327’, in Essays in Medieval History Presented to Bertie Wilkinson, ed. T. A. Sandquist and M. R. Powicke (Toronto, 1969). The next and final summons was not issued until the reign of Richard II, on which see idem, ‘The Last Medieval Summons of the English Feudal Levy, 13 June 1385’, EHR lxxiii (1958); J. J. N. Palmer, ‘The Last Summons of the Feudal Army in England (1385)’, EHR lxxxiii (1968); and Lewis, ‘The Feudal Summons of 1385’, EHR c (1985).

46 Vita Edwardi Secundi, ed. Childs, 25. the english ar my and the scottish campaign, 1310–11 25 sixty-two horses had to be reimbursed by the Crown. 47 The details of nine other horses that were lost are unrecorded. A large number of these horses died at Berwick during the winter, which suggests that the cause of their mortality might have been natural rather than a result of combat. 48 It should be remembered that the wardrobe book only recorded reimbursements to those men in receipt of Crown pay.

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