By Chandler Allen Phillips M.D., P.E., Ph.D. (Hon.) (auth.)

On considered one of my returns to California, I attended the "Disabilities Expo 88" on the l. a. conference heart. one of the quite a few marvels oftech­ nology for the wheelchair disabled have been stair-climbing wheelchairs, self­ elevating and reducing kitchen cabinetry, or even a very available "dude ranch" event. while, as a visitor of the Southern California bankruptcy of the nationwide Spinal wire harm organization, i used to be a part of a small sales space (among the greater than 2 hundred exhibitors) within which we had spinal twine injured humans up and jogging with a reduce­ extremity bracing process (the reciprocating gait orthosis) used on the friends Spinal damage software in l. a.. I had a tender guy, a C6/7 point quadriplegic, strolling with electric muscle stimulation and reduce­ extremity bracing. The process is reviewed in bankruptcy eight of this ebook. As those "disabled" folks walked erect and upright between their wheel­ chair sure colleagues and took lengthy, convinced strides previous indicates extol­ ling the newest technological virtues of one more "new" wheelchair (Fig. 1), I mirrored at the paradox of all of it. What most of these paralyzed humans W0re rather searching for used to be an alteration oftheir incapacity in order that they may extra in general functionality (in an unaltered environment). What the nice majority of the exhibitors have been supplying used to be an alteration of our surroundings so they may possibly extra typically functionality (with an unaltered disability).

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Extra resources for Functional Electrical Rehabilitation: Technological Restoration After Spinal Cord Injury

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Speed of muscle contraction, endurance for exercise, and strength of muscle as a function of muscle temperature. twitch muscle fiber. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are muscles with a specific type of myosin that allows the rapid splitting of ATP and contraction of the muscle. 11. In contrast, slow-twitch muscle is often used for endurance activities and consists of slowly conducting nerves and very slowly contracting muscle. Slow-twitch muscle takes hundreds of milliseconds to respond and therefore represents a very low velocity conducting and contracting system.

No such system has been reported in the extant literature. Moreover, there is evidence that such a system is not necessary in closed-loop muscle control. Partridge (1966) has demonstrated that inertial (acceleration) compensation occurs in skeletal muscle. He demonstrated a constant amplitude 34 2. 19. A servomotor feedback control system. movement of loads (even over a 28-fold change in system inertia). The preceding classification system is important to our understanding of the closed-loop muscle control problem.

Accepting the primarily empirical nature of the Hill (1938) equation, we have extended the force-velocity relationship to develop a series of subsidiary empirical equations (Petrofsky and Phillips, 1980, 1981; Phillips and Petrofsky, 1980). Basically, the original Hill equation relates shortening velocity (V) and isotonic load (P) as discussed above: area (Partridge and Glaser, 1960; Rack, 1966), including the interesting observation that ATP is resynthesized as a consequence of muscle lengthening (Petrofsky and Fitch, 1980).

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