By William E. Cooper, John M. Sorensen (auth.)

The medical research of speech construction has been undertaken inside of quite a few disciplines, together with linguistics, body structure, actual acoustics, and psychology, between others. lately, it has turn into attainable to mix the data collected inside of those separate disciplines to achieve extra perception into the character of this advanced human job. right here, we observe an interdisciplinary concentration to at least one of the main generally mentioned and poorly below­ stood features of the speech sign. This research of primary voice frequency contains a mix of linguistics, actual acoustics, and psychology. The rele­ vant features of every self-discipline are brought in bankruptcy 1 in order that readers with minimum historical past in at the very least the sort of components may be in a position to compre­ hend a lot of the full. This ebook is written basically as an unique examine treatise instead of as a assessment of the literature. in spite of the fact that, many past reports of basic fre­ quencyare mentioned right here, and the e-book may still function either a reference resource and a supplementary textual content in classes on speech conversation taught inside a few disciplines. end result of the complexity of Fo styles, graphical screens of the implications playa fairly very important function during this presentation. whereas the result of each one scan are summarized and mentioned verbally in the textual content, the graphical monitors, through comparability, characterize a extra inte­ gral a part of this publication than is usually the case in remedies of speech production.

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Fa SD t SD (7) a. Fa SD t SD b. Fa SD t SD (8) a. Fa SD t SD b. Fa SD t SD Grand-means a. Fa SD t SD b. Fa SD t SD Pl,T} P2,T2 P3,T3 199. 00 211. 00 203. 00 228. 00 220. 00 230. 00 211. 00 227. 00 182. 09 183. 08 179. 10 177. 16 181. 19 166. 15 178. 07 182. 18 151. 11 151. 17 170. 09 166. 11 168. 18 163. 23 157. 08 150. 26 208. 00 224. 00 180. 12 177. 18 161. 21 157. 2. Plot of mean Fo vs. time for each of the measured peak values in Sentences (la)-(4a). -. -.. 3. Plot of mean Fo vs. time for each of the measured peak values in Sentences (lb)-(4b).

The Fo Topline and the Topline Rule 51 195 189 ~183 '" -;'177 lJ.. 13. Predicted (dotted line) and obtained (solid line) values of mean Fo vs. 1, Group I (a) sentences, using Topline Model 3 to derive the predicted values. mean error terms are typically near 1% or less for both male and female speakers. 98) for P3. Thus, the Topline Rule appears to capture the average form of peak declination in male and female speech with about the same high degree of accuracy. 14. Predicted (dotted line) and obtained (solid line) values of mean Fo vs.

The mean and standard deviations for the error terms across the four sentences are shown for each subject. 7 also gives the mean and standard deviation for the error terms for each sentence across all twenty subjects, and finally, the overall mean and standard deviation for all predictions of P2 and P3. 8 times higher for female speakers. 86%, respectively. 70%. The capability of the single-line topline model to predict male and female Fo peaks with approximately the same high degree of accuracy was observed not only here but throughout the experiments contained in this chapter.

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