By Hartmut Yersin
This brand-new monograph on natural gentle emitting diodes, edited via a pioneer, and written by way of front-line researchers from academia and undefined, presents entry to the newest findings during this speedily becoming box. greater than ten contributions disguise all parts -- from conception and simple ideas, to assorted emitter fabrics and purposes in construction.
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Extra info for Highly Efficient OLEDs with Phosphorescent Materials
It is proposed that the 1MLCT(1dp*) state interacts by SOC with the 3MLCT(3dp*) state which on its part interacts by CI with the 3LC(3pp*) state (CI results from electron–electron interaction). According to Nozaki’s investigations [122, 124], this indirect coupling route is the dominant mechanism for the intense photoluminescence of many complexes. The corresponding SOC route is shown in Fig. 8c, and was depicted earlier in Fig. 6b. To summarize, an effective SOC between triplet substates and higher-lying ˆ SO φT1 (i ) , states can lead to signiﬁcant magnitudes of the matrix elements φSn H for example, and thus lead to appreciable ∆E(ZFS) values [Eq.
Thus, the two electrons carry opposite spins (α and β spins). This situation is described by an electron conﬁguration of π2. The resulting state, the ground state, is a spin singlet S0 (1p2) (Fig. 4, left). When, after a HOMO–LUMO excitation the spins are also taken into account, one obtains for the excited state conﬁguration π1π*1 four different situations (Fig. 4, middle). An excitation without a spin ﬂip gives an excited singlet, while an excitation with a spin ﬂip gives a triplet due to three different possible spin orientations.
Usually, this is carried out by use of group theoretical methods. For example, for the t25g e1g conﬁguration, two triplets and two singlets are obtained. In a group theoretical notation (in the Oh group), the terms ordered according to increasing energy are 3 T1g, 3T2g, 1T1g, and 1T2g. Further excitations such as t26g → t23g e 3g lead to a number of additional energy states. , see Ref. , p. 1189, and Ref. , p. 683). It is an important property that all of these excited states have distinctly larger metal–ligand bond lengths than the ground state.