By Ofer Kaplan, Peter C. M. van Cohen, Jack S. Cohen (auth.), M. Rudin (eds.)

Remoted Cells and Perfused Organs 1. O. Kaplan, P.C.M. van Zijl, J.S. Cohen, Washington, DC/USA NMR reports of Metabolism of Cells and Perfused Organs person Nuclei 2. S.R. Williams, London, united kingdom In Vivo Proton Spectroscopy: Experimental Asoects and power three. N. Beckmann, Basel, Switzerland In Vivo 13C Spectroscopy in people four. M.J.W. previous, R.J. Maxwell, J.R. Griffiths, London, united kingdom Fluorine - 19F NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging In Vivo five. J.S. Ingwall, Boston, MA/USA Measuring Cation hobbies around the mobilephone Wall utilizing NMR Spectroscopy: Sodium pursuits in Striated Muscle 6. M. Rudin, A. Sauter, Basel, Switzerland In Vivo Phosphorus-31 NMR: capability and barriers

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The field gradients induced by oxyhaemoglobin in red cells ha vt'. a similar effect [190]. An elegant method to distinguish between intra- and extra-cellular sodium ions using relaxation-allowed multiple quantum spectroscopy has been proposed by Pekar et al. [185]. Most of the above mentioned techniques have been reviewed [38, 39, 44, 121, 191] and applications determining intra- and extracellular volumes, concentrations, pH, and lifetimes have been described. However, except for the latter two instances [185, 190], the medium has to be altered by addition of sometimes highly concentrated compounds, and the physiological equilibrium may be impaired.

Monitoring the ATP signal furnished information on cell function, and its decrease when the spheroids enlarged (to 350lLm), was used to evaluate cell necrosis. The rates oflactate production were measured by 13C_NMR when the cells were perfused with [1-13C]-glucose, and the rates decrease as the spheroids became "older" and larger [169]. The problem of spheroid clumping was addressed differently by Halliday et al. [170] by adding a stirrer to a 20-mm NMR tube. These authors studied citrate metabolism in rat prostatic tumor cells, and also used [1_13C]_ glucose.

Lavanchy N, Martin J, Rossi A (1984) Cardiovasc Res 18: 573 215. Kopp SJ, Krieglstein J, Freidank A, Rachman A, Seibert A, Cohen MM (1984) J Neurochem 43: 1716 216. Renlund DG, Gerstenblith G, Lakatta EG, Jacobus WE, Kallman CH, Weisfeldt ML (1984) J Mol Cell Cardiol 16: 795 217. Albert K, Kruppa G, Zeller KP, Bayer E, Hartmann F (1984) Z Naturforsch 39: 859 218. Lavanchy N, Martin J, Rossi A (1984) FEBS Lett 178: 34 219. Murakami M, Seo Y, Nakahari T, Mori H, Imai y, Watari H (1984) Jpn J Physiol 34: 587 220.

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