By Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, P. Lynne Honey

Designed to use studying concept and rules to the presentation of studying, this article exhibits how studying ideas paintings in either animals and folks. in the course of the booklet, the authors exhibit how the learn of studying is helping remedy sensible difficulties, comparable to enhancing examine abilities, enhancing relationships, elevating teenagers, and successfully preventing smoking. This booklet is either solidly established in examine and interesting for the scholar. to assist make sure that scholars comprehend the fabrics, the authors strategically contain a number of possibilities for evaluate and self-testing in the textual content.

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He maintained that his own theoretical inferences about cognitive processes were based entirely on direct observations of behavior and were thus objectively based. Tolman once even apologized for the “shameful necessity” of having to discuss conscious experience in a text he was writing (Tolman, 1932)— a reflection perhaps of how frustrated psychologists had been by the old introspectionist approach. Like other behaviorists, Tolman also believed strongly in the usefulness of animal research for discovering basic processes of learning, and almost all of his research was conducted with rats.

Watson (discussed later in this chapter), were students of functionalist psychologists. QUICK QUIZ D © Psychology Archives—The University of Akron Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mind 1. The (functionalist/structuralist) __________________ approach held that the goal of psychology should be to identify the basic elements of the mind. The primary research method used for accomplishing this was the method of i______________. 2. Psychologists who adopted the (functionalist/structuralist) ______________ approach to psychology emphasized the adaptive processes of the mind and were thus very interested in the study of learning.

154) Thus, as originally defined by Watson, behaviorism is a natural science approach to psychology that focuses on the study of environmental influences on observable behavior. Watson also believed strongly in the value of animal research. In keeping with his functionalist background—in turn following from Darwin’s theory of evolution—he believed that the principles governing the behavior of nonhuman species might also be relevant to the behavior of humans. Thus, traditional behavioral research is often conducted using nonhuman animals, primarily rats and pigeons.

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