By Jeannine Davis-Kimball, Eileen M. Murphy, Ludmila Koryakova, Leonid T. Yablonsky

A sequence of essays on Eurasian archaeology originating in EAA symposia held at Goteborg in 1998 and Bournemouth in 1999. Thirty papers speak about theoretical concerns inside Eurasian archaeology, through six case stories of modern excavations and concluding with a couple of interpretations of the proof from the Bronze and Iron a long time. The latter comprises discussions of artwork and sculpture, relationships among diverse cultural teams, ritual and faith, guns and warriors, textiles, metallurgy and masses extra.

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Additional resources for Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age

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3 and 8). During the Early Iron Age, objects of precious metal indicated the high social status of their wearer. Individuals of the upper echelons (both men and women) would have worn gold jewelry including bracelets, earrings, and torques. In addition, the nomads decorated their horse harnesses with silver plaques and beads. Spiral-shaped torques, earrings, and bracelets displayed in relief on the Ustyurt statues (Figs. 3, 7, and 9) replicate jewelry that has been recovered from nomadic tombs in the Volga and Ural regions, and in Kazakhstan.

Within this scheme, one can find burials classified into four basic groups: (i) Royal Burials, (ii) Elite Burials, (iii) Ordinary Population Burials, and (iv) Dependent Population Burials (Koryakova 1996: 266-67). The purpose of the current paper will be to illuminate several important theoretical issues and questions which may be generated by an examination of these materials as they relate to a 19 Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age This hierarchical arrangement posits a general model for societal stratification, again obtained through the interpretation of the variability associated with the material elements of the mortuary sites.

Binford’s work in the 1970’s also added significantly to the emerging analytical treatment of mortuary remains during this period. In Binford’s, Mortuary Practices: Their Study and Their Potential, it was asserted that there were significant associations between rank and status and their resultant reflection within the burial rite in the form of quality and quantity of grave ‘furniture’ and the nature of the grave ‘facility’ (Binford 1971: 232-233). 1. The Role of the Living Certainly, one of the key factors in many of the post-processual critiques is that the ‘living’ members of past societies are often only seen as ‘passive’ actors within rituality, or as Hodder has stated, “…individuals appear controlled by rituals according to universal expectations; there is no sense in which they actively manipulate and negotiate ideologies” (Hodder 1986:27).

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