By Guido Küng

It is the purpose of the current learn to introduce the reader to the methods of deliberating these modern philosophers who follow the instruments of symbolic good judgment to classical philosophical difficulties. not like the "conti­ nental" reader for whom this paintings used to be initially written, the English­ talking reader might be extra acquainted with lots of the philosophers dis­ stubborn during this e-book, and he'll regularly now not be tempted to brush off them indiscriminately as "positivists" and "nominalists". however the English model of this learn will help to redress the stability in one other admire. In view of the current emphasis on usual language and the vast­ unfold tendency to go away the mathematical logicians by myself with their technicalities, it kind of feels now not with no benefit to restore the curiosity in formal ontology and the development of formal platforms. a better examine the old account in an effort to take delivery of right here, may well persuade the reader that there are numerous issues within the ancient increase­ ment whose results haven't but been totally assessed: I point out, e. g. , the shift from the normal three-level semantics of experience and deno­ tation to the modern two-level semantics of illustration; the relation of extensional constitution and intensional content material within the extensional structures of Wittgenstein and Carnap; the complicated alterations in labelling the several forms of analytic and apriori actual sentences; and so on. one of the philosophically attention-grabbing instruments of symbolic good judgment Lesniewski's calculus of names merits specified attention.

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BOeHEN-SKI 1956, § 36). 20 RUSSELL 21 RUSSELL 29 2. FROM THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE TO THE LOGICAL ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE The aim of this chapter is to show how logistic analysis has altered the approach to philosophical problems. We will see how Russell turned the epistemological problem of the external world into a question of comparing the different languages of constructional systems. But first we must explain the logicist definition of number, which is the prototype of a further kind of russellian analysis, that of so-called reduction.

He can afford to take this view, as he has found a way of nonetheless allowing for sentences containing descriptions: every such sentence can be replaced by an equivalent conjunction of sentences in which no description occurs and which does not violate the laws of logic. ' or in symbols: (3x){Kx' (y)(Ky ::::> y = x) . Bx} In this way Russell solves the problem of the functioning of descriptions, which play so important a part in enabling us to speak about things with which we are not directly acquainted.

Not only people can be classified according to their philosophical views, but languages, too, can be arranged according to the different metaphysical presuppositions implicit in them. And languages have the advantage of being more easily surveyable than people's thoughts. Furthermore, since they are the tools of intellectual activity, they can be classified according to their usefulness. One can ask RUSSELL 1914, p. 112, p. 153; RUSSELL 1959, p. 13. , be found in LEIBNIZ 1875-1890, vol. 4, p. 158.

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