By R.M. Colomb
To ensure that details platforms assisting varied firms to interoperate, there has to be an contract as to what the phrases suggest. there are numerous such agreements in position, aiding info structures interoperation in lots of diverse software parts. almost all these agreements were created as a part of various platforms improvement techniques, yet because the introduction of the Semantic internet within the overdue Nineteen Nineties, they've been studied as one of those software program artifact of their personal correct, known as an ontology, or description of a shared global. This ebook brings jointly advancements from philosophy, synthetic intelligence and data structures to formulate a suite of practical necessities for ontology improvement. as soon as the sensible necessities are demonstrated, the booklet seems to be at numerous ontology illustration languages: RDFS, OWL, universal good judgment and subject Maps, to teach how those languages aid the practical specifications, what deficiencies there are, and the way the languages relate to one another. in addition to a set of operating examples used in the course of the publication, the whole therapy is supported through a longer instance of a hypothetical ontology for the Olympic video games awarded first as a collection of chapter-end routines after which as a suite of strategies which illustrate some of the issues made within the textual content within the context of a unmarried coherent development.
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Extra info for Ontology and the Semantic Web
A game therefore requires an ontology, a set of terms which everyone agrees upon which describe its institutional world. A simple example is the children’s game tic-tac-toe or noughts and crosses. We will first describe the game, placing in italics the terms in the ontology, then we will look at the ontology. txt 34 4. Some Examples Tic-tac-toe involves two players, X and O, and a game space, an example of which is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. Game space for tic-tac-toe Each player in turn places a mark in one of the vacant cells.
It is generally necessary for the organizations involved to alter their systems of institutional facts to commit to a common ontology. This is generally easiest to do when the organizations do business with each other. 6 Further Reading The classic reference to the bottom-up approach to federated databases is . Semantic heterogeneity has been studied by  and by . 29 4 Some Examples Now that we have a better idea of what an ontology is and how it originates, we can gain a better insight by looking at a few examples in some detail.
We wanted a many-to-many interoperation within a sort of exchange which provides a controlled but partly open environment. Suppose we have a network of pairs of organizations which interoperate via EDI. Does this lead to our goal? The answer is not really. A single pairwise interoperation creates an ontology which establishes semantic homogeneity between the two organizations to the limits of the interoperation, but these ontologies are heterogeneous among themselves. They form a network, but not a single wider scale ontology.