By Kinzel T., et al.
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Extra info for Organic Synthesis Workbook III
2002a, 2003a). 1). 4 Coordinate system for the idealized representation of a lamina of a microporous material containing redox-active centers deposited on an electrode in contact with a suitable electrolyte. In the following, it will be assumed that the concentration of electrolyte cations, M+, in the solution is sufficiently high to ensure that ion transport phenomena occurring in the electrolyte can be neglected. 3 Continuous Layer Let us first consider the case of an infinite, uniform layer of microporous material attached to an infinite electrode.
As a result, a record of the variation of impedance with frequency (impedance spectrum) is obtained. Typically, EIS experiments are conducted from millihertz to kilohertz, so that available information covers a wide range of timescales (Retter and Lohse, 2005). To properly describe the action of an alternating potential input on electrochemical cells, one can in principle consider at least two coupled interface processes influencing the impedance of the system: the electron transfer process across the electrolyte/electrode interface and the double-layer effect.
If the microporous material incorporates electroactive units, there is place for redox conductivity that is attained via electron hopping between immobile redoxactive centers in the material coupled with ion transport across the pores. Depending on the distribution of electroactive centers, we can discern two extreme situations: first, when the material itself is electroactive, such as several transition metal oxides or metal-organic frameworks; second, when the electroactive centers are isolated within a nonconducting matrix, such as in zeolites incorporating electroactive cations.