By Katie Boyle, Marsha Levine, Colin Renfrew

The domestication of the pony used to be the most major occasions within the improvement of many human societies, ushering in new modes of shipping and war and producing social and political switch. This quantity seeks to check the origins of horse husbandry and pastoralism - in particular nomadic pastoralism - within the Eurasian steppe. In bringing jointly archaeologists and archaeozoologists from Asia, Europe and North the USA it presents a wide-ranging evaluation of matters and facts for the advance of crucial ecu societies from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. a lot of the cloth is the following made to be had in English for the 1st time. the problems surrounding the domestication of the pony are set firmly in the broader context of steppe ecology and human subsistence, and with the advance of pastoral economies throughout this important geographical area.

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Extra info for Prehistoric Steppe Adaptation and the Horse (McDonald Institute Monographs)

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489–99. A. R. Sheliag-Sosonko, 1988. Climate change in Ukraine in Lateglacial and Holocene [Klimaticheskie usloviya Ukrainy v pozdnelednikovye i golotsene], in Holocene Palaeoclimates of the European Territory of the USSR [Paleoklimaty Golotsena Evropeiskoi Territorii SSSR], eds. A. A. Klimanov. Moscow: Institute of Geography USSR Academy of Sciences, 125– 35. , 1990. Palaeoindicators of environmental changes in the low part of the Volga River basin for the last 10,000 years [Paleoindikatsiya izmeneniya landshaftov Nizhnego Povolzhya v poslednie 10 tysiach let], in Caspian Sea: Problems of Geology and Geomorphology [Kaspiiskoe More: Voprosy Geologii i Geomorfologii], eds.

As charcoal was necessary for bronze smelting, metal workshops are concentrated near forests where the wood supply was sufficient to support metal production. Recent history of metalwork plants in the Urals supports this statement: until the nineteenth century the regional industry used charcoal without any problem (Chernykh 1998). The situation was quite different in the foreststeppe and especially in the steppe belt. As a result pine forests and valley forests which grew in the steppe belt were very important for successful metal production.

1997. Third Millennium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse. Conclusion We can see that the main stages of climatic and environmental history are synchronous in the large area covered by the Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe belt. The climate and environmental situation was far from stable in the Holocene. Mild climatic conditions at 4800–3200 BC were followed by sudden changes in humidity and vegetation cover at 3200– 900 BC. There is a relatively good correlation between different palaeoproxy approaches to environmental reconstruction.

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