By Graham Hutton

Haskell is a merely sensible language that enables programmers to speedily enhance transparent, concise, and proper software program. The language has grown in acceptance lately, either in educating and in undefined. This publication is predicated at the author's event of training Haskell for greater than two decades. All ideas are defined from first rules and no programming adventure is needed, making this booklet available to a extensive spectrum of readers. whereas half I makes a speciality of easy strategies, half II introduces the reader to extra complicated themes. This new version has been greatly up-to-date and increased to incorporate fresh and extra complex positive factors of Haskell, new examples and workouts, chosen suggestions, and freely downloadable lecture slides and instance code. The presentation is fresh and easy, whereas additionally being absolutely compliant with the most recent model of the language, together with fresh adjustments pertaining to applicative, monadic, foldable, and traversable varieties.

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For example, the result of library function head that selects the first element of a list is undefined if the list is empty. CHAPTER 3. 6 Curried functions Functions with multiple arguments can also be handled in another, perhaps less obvious way, by exploiting the fact that functions are free to return functions as results. For example, consider the following definition: add :: Int → (Int → Int) add x y = x + y The type states that add is a function that takes an argument of type Int, and returns a result that is a function of type Int → Int.

Using zip we can also define a function that returns the list of all positions at which a value occurs in a list, by pairing each element with its position, and selecting those positions at which the desired value occurs: positions :: positions x xs = Eq a ⇒ a → [a ] → [Int ] [i | (x , i) ← zip xs [0 . 4. 4 55 String comprehensions Up to this point we have viewed strings as a primitive notion in Haskell. In fact they are not primitive as such, but are actually constructed as lists of characters.

4. 4 = −1 = 0 = 1 Pattern matching Many functions have a particularly simple and intuitive definition using pattern matching, in which a sequence of syntactic expressions called patterns is used to choose between a sequence of results of the same type. If the first pattern is matched then the first result is chosen, otherwise if the second is matched then the second result is chosen, and so on. For example, the library function ¬ that returns the negation of a logical value is defined as follows: ¬ ¬ False ¬ True :: = = Bool → Bool True False Functions with more than one argument can also be defined using pattern matching, in which case the patterns for each argument are matched in order within each equation.

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