By B. Kuzmanovic
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However, certain limitations and issues to be improved are present: (1) One of the limitations is that the system behaviour must be known before experiments are performed on the workstation. For example, the position of the phase boundary at equilibrium, the amount of each phase required for sampling or the degree of dilution must be determined beforehand. (2) In some cases, when handling viscous liquids for example, an air bubble may form inside the syringe. This bubble is located at the surface of the plunger tip and is never larger than several percents of the syringe capacity.
Therefore, each salt was added to water until no more could be dissolved. Then, a small amount of water was added until all of the solids dissolved. Organic solutions were made by dissolving the carbonyl compound in an adequate apolar organic solvent. 5 wt% for all solutions. This concentration was taken as the reference and represents the benzaldehyde concentration in the range of interest for the industrial toluene oxidation process when all three products, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol are produced in equal quantities (see Chapter 1).
Because only such unprotonated amino groups will react with carbonyls, the pH of all other prepared ammonium derivative salt solutions was measured to confirm that the amino group in them was also unprotonated. All aqueous salt solutions were prepared as nearly saturated solutions at room temperature. The water solubility data for most of the salts found in the literature were only qualitative ("soluble" or "larger than") or could not be found at all. Therefore, each salt was added to water until no more could be dissolved.