By Arif Zamhari

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Extra resources for Rituals of Islamic Spirituality: A Study of Majils Dhikr Groups in East Java

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So, the term tasawuf is able to accommodate a range of meanings which are put forward by different groups. , tasawuf positif), have recently been introduced in the literature of tasawuf study in Indonesia. Thus tasawuf is no longer restricted to the description of practices by tarekat (Sufi groups). The term tasawuf modern was first introduced by Hamka in the study and practice of tasawuf in Indonesia. Using this term, Hamka tried to disengage the concept of tasawuf from the concept of tarekat.

According to this concept, books that can be categorised as mu’tabarah are those which are compatible with the doctrine of Ahlussunnah wal Jama’ah(Muhammad 2004:77), a doctrine which is strongly held by the NU members as the basis of their religious practices. According to this doctrine, those books should conform to one of four madhhab (Islamic legal schools) in matters of Islamic jurisprudence; in matters of Islamic theology they should follow the teachings of Abu> H{asan al-Ash’a>ri> and Abu> Mans{u>r al-Ma>turidi>, and in matters of tasawuf they should comply with the teaching of al-Ghaza>li> and Junaid al-Baghda>di>.

This can be seen in the case of Pesantren Tebuireng in Jombang, which has played an important role in providing most of the influential leaders of Qadiriyah Naqshabandiyah in East and Central Java. All of these figures were graduates from this pesantren, even though Pesantren Tebuireng is not a pesantren tarekat (Dhofier 1999: 151). 5 Rituals of Islamic Spirituality Another important study on tarekat was conducted by a Dutch scholar, Martin Van Bruinessen. His work might be considered as the most complete work that has ever been written on the Naqshabaniyah order and its networks, particularly in Indonesia.

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