By Daniel E. Lieberman
In a single experience, human heads functionality very similar to these of different mammals. We use them to chunk, odor, swallow, imagine, pay attention, and so forth. yet, in different respects, the human head is sort of strange. not like different animals, even our nice ape cousins, our heads are brief and large, very gigantic brained, snoutless, mostly furless, and perched on a brief, approximately vertical neck. Daniel E. Lieberman units out to give an explanation for how the human head works, and why our heads advanced during this particularly human approach.
Exhaustively researched and years within the making, this cutting edge publication records how the numerous parts of the top functionality, how they developed considering that we diverged from the apes, and the way they have interaction in diversified methods either functionally and developmentally, inflicting them to be hugely built-in. This integration not just allows the head’s many devices to deal with one another as they develop and paintings, but in addition allows evolutionary swap. Lieberman exhibits how, whilst, and why the most important differences obtrusive within the evolution of the human head happened. The designated approach the pinnacle is built-in, Lieberman argues, made it attainable for a number of developmental shifts to have had common results on craniofacial development, but nonetheless enable the pinnacle to operate exquisitely.
this is often the 1st publication to discover extensive what occurred in human evolution by means of integrating rules of improvement and practical morphology with the hominin fossil checklist. The Evolution of the Human Head will completely switch the learn of human evolution and has frequent ramifications for wondering different branches of evolutionary biology.
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Collagen fiber orientation is consistent within each lamella but varies between lamellae, forming a plywoodlike arrangement that creates strength in multiple planes (Giraud-Guille, 1988). Lamellae are separated by thin (1–2 µm), highly mineralized cement lines. These lines are structurally weaker than the surrounding bone but may increase the bone’s overall elasticity and halt the spread of cracks through the tissue. , 1991). Most common in the skull is circumlamellar bone, which osteoblasts deposit slowly in layers (3–10 µm thick) from the membranes surrounding each bone.
But at high doses, estrogen (which males convert from testosterone in growth plates via the enzyme aromatase) causes chondrocyte cell death. Thus surges of estrogen or testosterone during puberty cause fusion of bone growth plates and the cessation of growth in height (Compston, 2001). Males who lack either estrogen receptors or the aromatase enzyme have delayed epiphyseal closure and skeletal maturation, resulting in very tall stature (E. P. , 1995). , 2004). 43 the evolution of the human head 44 Mechanical Loading What is the relationship between the mechanical properties of bone and the ways that applied forces influence bone growth?
Ligaments mostly link bones together to restrict movement at joints; tendons, which link muscles with bones, are more elastic. Both resist tension along their long axes and can act like springs. In addition, both tissues contain stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors that sense and transmit information on changes in tissue length to the central nervous system. Ligaments, tendons and muscles attach to bone via bundles of collagen fibers known as Sharpey’s fibers. These fibers project into bone, which mineralizes around them, and they hold both hard and soft tissues together.