By Graeme Smith

Object-Z is an object-oriented extension of the formal specification language Z. It provides to Z notions of sessions and items, and inheritance and polymorphism. by means of extending Z's semantic foundation, it permits the specification of platforms as collections of self sustaining items during which self and mutual referencing are attainable.
The Object-Z Specification Language offers a entire description of Object-Z together with discussions of semantic concerns, definitions of all language constructs, style principles and different ideas of utilization, specification instructions, and an entire concrete syntax. it is going to provide help to with a bit of luck build Object-Z requisites and is meant as a reference handbook to maintain via your aspect as you employ and discover ways to use Object-Z.
The Object-Z Specification Language is appropriate as a textbook or as a secondary textual content for a graduate-level direction, and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.

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The operation OpA changes the object referenced by a according to the operation Op of C. Although the object referenced by b is not mentioned in the definition of this operation, if there is a possibility of external referencing, we cannot deduce that it remains unchanged when OpA occurs. For example, consider the case where an object of class A is a subsystem of the system specified by the following class B. Semantic Basis 39 The class has two state variables a and c referencing objects of classes A and C respectively.

Branch ::= Identifier {((Expression))] If a branch is just an identifier it represents a value of the free type. When a branch comprises an identifier and an expression, it represents a subset of the values of the free type. The identifier represents an injection - that is, a one-to-one function whose domain is defined by the expression and whose range is the free type. The subset of values represented by the branch are those related to values in the expression by the injection. The values of the free type represented by each branch are distinct.

When OpB occurs, the object referenced by a undergoes the operation OpA and that referenced by c undergoes the operation Op. b undergoes the operation Op. Hence, when reasoning about OpA of class A, the most we can deduce about the object referenced by b is that if it does change then it changes according to an operation of class C. This limitation on what can be deduced about the subsystems of a system applies also to the system itself. No formal distinction is made between those classes which define subsystems and that which defines the entire system.

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