By Terry Anderson

Concept and perform of on-line LearningASIN: 0919737595Title: idea and perform of on-line LearningBinding: PaperbackPublication date: 2004

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Craik, F. I. , & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294. Duffy, T. , & Cunningham, D. J. (1996). Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction. In D. H. ), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 170-198). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan. Ertmer, P. , & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective.

Use prerequisite test questions to activate the prerequisite knowledge structure required for learning the new materials. With the flexibility of online learning, students with diverse backgrounds and knowledge can choose the most appropriate path to review previous or prerequisite learning before new information is presented. 3. Information should be chunked to prevent overload during processing in working memory (Miller, 1956). Online learning materials should present between five and nine items on a screen to facilitate efficient processing in working memory.

Links to both simpler and more complicated materials can be used to accommodate learners at different knowledge levels. 2. Strategies should be used to allow learners to retrieve existing information from long-term memory to help make sense of the new information. Learners must construct a memory link between the new information and some related information already stored in long-term memory. Strategies to facilitate the use of existing schema are listed below. • Use advance organizers to activate an existing cognitive structure or to provide the information to incorporate the details of the lesson (Ausubel, 1960).

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