By David Scott Redfearn

Biographers have hailed Leo Tolstoy as a literary enormous yet have misunderstood or misrepresented what he considered as his most vital paintings, particularly his try and formulate a constant philosophy which took its proposal from the Sermon at the Mount yet addressed itself to the political and financial difficulties of the day

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Extra resources for Tolstoy: Principles New World Order

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There was nothing left for the Boers to do but to take the initiative or submit to occupation. In case it should be imagined that M o o n ' s description of the foundation of Rhodesia as 'the greatest achievement of Cecil Rhodes' is meant to be taken at its face value, a brief account of how it was done is in order. The country to the north of Bechuanaland and the Transvaal was known to be fertile and well-watered, and, though within the tropics, to be high enough for European occupation. It was inhabited by the Matabeles and the Mashonas under King Lo Bengula.

The American researcher to whom reference has already been made, namely Parker Thomas M o o n , Associate Professor of International Relations in the University of Columbia, elaborated on both themes, and confirms Tolstoy's views in every respect. Here he is on the subject of the background to the Boer War: From Rhodesia, the greatest achievement of Cecil Rhodes, we must turn our attention to the Boer communities of Transvaal and Orange River. These, as we have seen, had been recognized as selfgoverning republics, and had been left to pursue their own interests, until with the discovery of gold in the northern republic, Transvaal, about the year 1886, a new factor entered into the situation.

Secondly, there was the murder of thousands of young men sent to kill and be killed in a cause that did not concern them. But war is not the only reason for permanent armies. In 1893, six years before the beginning of these events, Tolstoy had written at length on the use of armed forces, not against those of a foreign country, but domestically, for the same purpose of maintaining 'privileged wealth'. In the late summer of 1892, he had been travelling by rail on a mission of famine relief to the Tula and Ryazan provinces, when he had encountered a special train carrying a punitive expedition to one of the estates where the peasants were starving.

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