By Ioan Mackenzie James MA, DPhil, FRS (auth.)

This booklet is predicated on lectures i've got given to senior undergraduate and graduate audiences at Oxford and in other places through the years. My goal has been to supply an summary of either the topological conception and the uniform thought, with an emphasis at the relation among the 2. even if i am hoping that the potential expert may well locate it invaluable as an creation it's the non-specialist i've got had extra in brain in settling on the contents. hence i've got tended to prevent the inventive examples and counterexamples which frequently occupy a lot of the gap in books on basic topology, and i've attempted to maintain the variety of definitions right down to the basic minimal. There are not any specific necessities yet i've got labored at the assumption strength reader will have already got had a few event of operating with units and capabilities and also will be acquainted with the fundamental thoughts of algebra and research. An previous model of the current e-book seemed in 1987 less than the name Topo­ logical and Uniform areas. whilst the time got here for a brand new version I got here to the belief that, instead of simply making the mandatory corrections, it'd be higher to make extra massive changes. components of the textual content were rewritten and new fabric, together with new diagrams, added.

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Show that ~ is a topology on X in which every point other than x 0 is both open and closed. 10. )- ¢(ry)J. 11. Find a topology on the real line, other than the discrete topology and the trivial topology, in which every open set is closed and vice versa. 1 General remarks In branches of mathematics where the objects of study are sets with some kind of additional structure, a special role is played by functions which preserve that structure. In algebra, for example, where the additional structure takes the form of one or more binary operations, the structure-preserving functions generally called homomorphisms) are those which respect the binary operation or operations.

In case the topology of X is generated by a family r the topology of X' is generated by the family r' consisting of the inverse images of the members of r. For example, consider the set C of complex numbers. By taking real and imaginary parts we obtain a bijection between C and the real plane 1R2 , and then use the above procedure to topologize C. Similarly, in higher dimensions we can topologize en so as to make the corresponding bijection en- JR 2" a homeomorphism. ) of real n x n matrices. ) so as to make the correspondence a homeomorphism.

20. ;Vx whenever x E U. ¥x, for each point x, is the neighbourhood filter of x defined by the topology. T, without prejudice, as open sets. We first have to verify the axioms of topology. Since the empty set and the full set are obviously open, we only have to check the axioms for intersection and union. Let U, V be open. ¥X, and sou n vis open. Let {Ui} be a family of open sets. ¥x. Therefore UUi is open, completing the verification. It remains to be shown that the neighbourhood system determined by the topology is the same as the coherent collection which determined the topology.

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