By T. V. Arden D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.I.C., C.Eng., M.I.M.M., P.A.I.W.E. (auth.)
This booklet is an try and fill a niche within the current literature on ion trade. the various first-class works already to be had are of 3 major varieties, common introductions to the topic, professional discussions of analytical and laboratory thoughts, and complex theoretical treatises. In perform, even with the significant variety of methods that have been constructed for l. a. bora tory use, ninety nine consistent with cent of all ion trade resins produced on this planet are utilized in water therapy, or heavily allied functions. This e-book is meant as a normal survey of the rules governing the sensible makes use of of ion alternate resins, for the advantage of scholars encountering the topic for the 1st time, and for the chemists and engineers in lots of branches of whose paintings brings them into touch with water therapy, yet who don't have the time to check extra complex volumes of easy conception. The history offered has been simplified to the utmost volume came across attainable with no falsification, and an try out has been made to narrate each one point of concept to its useful results in complete scale water remedy. Mathematical equipment were refrained from and pictorial or graphical presentation equipment used at any place attainable. because the booklet is anxious with normal rules, instead of info of any specific study paintings, references to unique papers and patents were passed over other than within the circumstances of specific methods, that have a unmarried in actual fact outlined origin.
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For hydraulic reasons it is frequently necessary to combine large diameters with sm all bed depths in order to reduce the pumping head required to feed water through the beds. Resin beds of this type have a most unfavourable geometry as compared with the typical tall narrow la bora tory units; but, nevertheless, the capacities 49 UNIT WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES o btained in them should be wi thin 15 per cent of the corresponding laboratory results, provided the unit has been designed to give even distribution and collection ofwater.
GENERAL ANION EXCHANGE The use of anion exchange resins for exchanging ions in solution, by the anionic paralleIs of reactions 7-10, is comparatively rare in water treatment, although widely used for special chemical purposes (see Chapter 8). There are only two significant applications in water treatment. The first is the rem oval of fulvic and humic acids, by exchange for chloride. (see Organic Traps. Chapter 6). RA +CI- + Na + (Fulvate) - ~ RA + (Fulvate) -- + Na +CI- .... (22) The second is the conversion of temporary to permanent hardness 36 HYDROXIDE ION EXCHANGE.
A typical regeneration curve is shown in Figure 12, which illustrates the removal of chloride from the resin, using 5 per cent sodium hydroxide solution. The first 0·45 bed volumes of emergent liquor consist solely of the voids water displaced from between the resin beads, after which the spent regenerant liquor builds up to the full input concentration du ring the next 0·35 bed volumes. Allowing for this dilution factor, one bed volume of 5 per cent NaOH has passed through the column by point A.