By Christina Jonung, Inga Persson

This quantity makes use of empirical experiences of gender ameliorations in kinfolk duties and time allocation to illustrate how such transformations impact women's wages and analyses pay constructions and salary mobility all through Europe.

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However, what this similar ranking in the male wage distribution in each of the two countries buys in terms of relative wage levels is of course also extremely important. The wage is an important indicator of economic wellbeing in and of itself and also, as noted above, a significant input into decision-making. So I would suggest that both measures, conventional earnings ratios and percentile rankings, are of interest. BLAU SWIMMING AGAINST THE TIDE: TRENDS IN THE GENDER GAP IN THE USA While these findings on international differences in the gender gap help to resolve one paradox, they generate another.

This was particularly the case for the year from which we draw our data, 1984, since the gender gap has been narrowing in the USA and widening in Sweden. An additional reason why our results for these two countries are especially interesting is that our data sources, the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for the USA and the Household Market and Nonmarket Activities Survey (HUS) for Sweden, contain information on actual labor market experience and thus permit us to control for this important variable in our wage regressions and corresponding decompositions.

On the other hand, we control for broadly defined industry and occupation even though these variables may reflect the impact of labor market discrimination. 2. For each country, we drop each woman’s residual from the male wage regression into the distribution of male wage residuals and find the female mean of the resulting percentiles. This is an indicator of the relative wages of women in each country after controlling for gender differences in personal characteristics, industry and occupation.

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