By James Wynbrandt

Introduces readers to the dramatic occasions, impressive humans, and precise customs and traditions that experience formed some of the world's international locations, with every one quantity masking a particular kingdom and supplying a concise historical past of the struggles and triumphs of the ..Title: .A short background of Pakistan..Author: .Wynbrandt, James/ Gerges, Fawaz A. (FRW)..Publisher: .Facts on File..Publication Date: .2008/12/01..Number of Pages: .336..Binding sort: .HARDCOVER..Library of Congress: .2008008921

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After Alexander’s death, Chandragupta again attacked Magadha, this time defeating the kingdom and claiming its throne. E. Chandragupta battled Seleucus, Alexander’s successor, near the Indus River, emerging victorious. In the subsequent peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all of present-day Pakistan and part of Ariana, present-day Afghanistan, to Chandragupta. To cement the treaty, Chandragupta married Seleucus’s daughter and gave Seleucus 500 war elephants. This marked the end of Greek rule in Pakistan, though descendants of these Greek immigrants would one day rule the region.

One went west to Europe, the Iranian Aryans to Iran, and the third, the Indo-Aryans, to the subcontinent. Expert horsemen, aggressive fighters, and armed with iron weapons, the Aryans met little resistance. E. Their language, Dardic, or Old Indo-Aryan, composed of several dialects, was restricted to the Pamir mountain region at the time. The second wave came about six centuries later. In its aftermath their language, now evolved into Indic, became dominant in the Pakistan area. The Aryan language also became the root of Sanskrit, Pahlavi, Greek, Latin, and ancient forms of Teutonic and Slavic languages.

Nonetheless, Xuanzang wrote a vivid, complimentary account of the kingdom and Harsha’s court. 38 INROADS OF ARMIES AND IDEAS Harsha died in 648 without an heir. A minister seized power. He attacked and robbed a Chinese envoy, who escaped to Nepal, which was Tibet’s suzerain. Tibet’s king was married to a Chinese princess and attacked Kanauj to avenge the ambassador’s honor. After this incident the Maukhari empire disintegrated into small states that remained independent throughout the century. The Rajput Upper India remained in turmoil for a century after Harsha’s death.

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