By Harold L. Drake (auth.), Harold L. Drake (eds.)
This is the 1st quantity to supply accomplished insurance of acetogenesis. major specialists current state of the art examine, investigating the constitution and serve as dating of key acetogenic methods, together with synthesis of ATP, the conservation of strength, and intersecting metabolic pathways. It explores the interactions among acetogenic micro organism and the circulation of subject and effort, giving the reader an built-in standpoint on acetogens and the surroundings. It provides landmark advances within the biochemistry, phylogeny, and molecular biology of acetogens, with lucid causes of heritage fabric, making this quantity available to beginners to the topic. It discusses various capabilities of acetogenesis in soils, and gastrointestinal tracts, in addition to present and power advertisement and environmental purposes. This quantity will function a vast and in-depth evaluation of easy and rising matters in acetogenesis for microbiologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, and ecologists, and as a stimulus for destiny research.
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For example, the protocol used to elucidate the nutritional requirements of C. thermoaceticum (Lundie and Drake, 1984) and C. 3 A typical medium for the cultivation of acetogens a Salts NaCl NH4Cl MgCl 2 . 6H2O CaCI 2 ·2H2O mg/L 400 400 330 50 Trace Elements MnS04 . H2O FeS04 · 7H2O CO(N0 3)2 . 6H 2O ZnCl2 NiCI 2 ' 6H2O H2Se04 CuS04 ' 5H2O AIK(S04)2 . 12H2O H3B03 Na2Mo04 . 05 Reducers Cysteine . HCI . H 2O Sodium sulfide mg/L 250 250 Vitamins Nicotinic acid Cyanocobalamin p-Arninobenzoic acid Calcium D-pantothenate Thiamine .
If future studies confirm the use of the acetyl-CoA pathway for acetate formation by these isolates, they would constitute important examples of acetogens capable of degrading large molecular weight polymers. In this regard, the human isolate 152 is reported to degrade amorphous but not crystalline cellulose (Chapter 13). On the assumption that this isolate is acetogenic, it constitutes the first known cellulose-degrading acetogen. It should be noted that a starch- and inulin- (a starch-like polysaccharide; avo M, = 5(00) degrading strain of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum (strain 1-1) has been reported (Drent and Gottschal, 1991).
3 Classification and Identification of Acetogens Acetogens are not a closely related group. Although utilization of the acetylCoA pathway unifies them, they are extremely diverse genetically; the guanine plus cytosine (G+C) content of genomes varies from 22 mol% with Clostridium ljungdahlii to 54 mol % with C. 2). However, all isolates to date are eubacteria, including the extreme halophilic isolate A. arabaticum (Zhilina and Zavarzin, 1990). New isolates are keyed out according to (i) morphology, (ii) presence, shape, and intracellular location of spores, (iii) staining properties, (iv) motility and type of flagella, (v) temperature, pH, and salinity requirements, (vi) G + C content, (vii) substrate/product profiles, (viii) comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA, and (ix) DNA-DNA hybridization properties Introduction to Acetogenesis 25 to known species.