By Dr. Gerhard Schlemmer, Dr. Bernard Radziuk (auth.)
"One may still fairly pass horne and mesh a web than leap into the pond and dive a long way fishes" (Chinese proverb) spotting the correct analytical query and making plans the research in accordance ly is definitely the 1st prerequisite for winning hint and ultratrace determina tions. the second one prerequisite is to pick the strategy applicable to the analyti cal specification. the strategy itself comprises a collection of accessible instruments. The 3rd prerequisite is that analysts and operators recognize the tools weH adequate to take pleasure in tough themselves as weH because the equipment and are rewarded by means of the enjoyment of top of the range info, quick and inexpensive effects and the conviction of getting the analytical task lower than keep watch over. This ability is understood between analysts or operators operating with an exhilarating new and occasionally complex analytical process yet is steadily misplaced on ce a method turns into "mature" and a regimen device. regrettably, laboratory managers frequently don't enable enough education time for his or her analysts and technicians for "routine" strategies and therefore omit a chance for motivating their co-workers and acquiring the complete advantage of the apparatus. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is likely one of the mature analytical concepts wh ich is visible as a regimen process in such a lot laboratories. greater than 10,000 furnaces are operated in elemental hint and ultratrace analy ses in laboratories worldwide today.
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"One should still relatively move horne and mesh a internet than leap into the pond and dive some distance fishes" (Chinese proverb) spotting the appropriate analytical query and making plans the research in accordance ly is definitely the 1st prerequisite for winning hint and ultratrace determina tions. the second one prerequisite is to pick the tactic acceptable to the analyti cal specification.
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Extra info for Analytical Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Laboratory Guide
In order to be able to quickly check on the sensitivity without the necessity to establish a calibration curve and in order to define sensitivity in absolute terms, the normalized reciprocal sensitivity, the so called characteristic mass (mo) was defined. mo is defined as the mass of analyte 44 2. 0044. As signals in graphite fumace AAS are usually quantified in integrated units, mo is expressed in integrated absorbance with the unit s. In the range in wh ich integrated absorbance is a linear function of the concentration, the characteristic mass is independent of the concentration.
The characteristic mass is listed in the analytical information section provided by manufacturers for a typical experimental configuration induding fumace, type of graphite tube and type of radiation source. 0044s/ Aq where ma is the mass of the analyte element introduced into the fumace, and Aq is the integrated absorbance obtained for ma. For the experimental determination of mo, ma should be chosen low enough so that Aq is safely in the linear working range of the instrument. On the other hand Aq should be high enough so that it can be quantified with good precision.
The volume of sampie to be dried and volatilized is in the range of a few microliters only and therefore the risk of a health hazard due to toxic metal vapours or solvent vapours is small. The sheath and purge gas used is usually chemically inert argon. Occasionally, air or 10% hydrogen in argon is used during pyrolysis. If the usual safety practices in the handling of gas cylinders are followed, no additional precautions need be applied. Nonetheless the sampies themselves, as for example in the cases of blood, serum or urine, or the reagents for sampie pretreatment can require special care and safety precautions.