By P. M. Brignoli (auth.), Prof. Dr. Sergio Bettini (eds.)

Arthropod venoms have obtained a lot recognition and feature performed an enormous function in folklore and medication for the reason that precedent days. Scorpion envenomation, "tarant­ ism," bee and wasp stings are between these matters approximately which such a lot has been speculated and written some time past. within the final 50 years or so, a number of medical papers were dedicated to arthropod venoms, yet just a couple of volumes were designed to assemble this swiftly expanding fabric, and those aren't fresh. Of overdue, the chemistry and mode of motion of a number of arthropod venoms were completely studied, and a few of those components will be used as pharmacological instruments and likewise as healing brokers. the purpose of the current quantity is to assemble in handbook shape new details in addition to the outdated notions on arthropod venoms. although it was once our goal to provide a quantity on arthropod venoms, and never on venomous arthropods, unavoidably we have been compelled to incorporate info on venom-producing organisms besides. We assumed, in reality, that these scientists for whom the current handbook is essentially meant (biochemists, quite com­ parative biochemists, and pharmacologists) might be accustomed to the biologic parts in regards to the venom-producing species; which may still convey them how very important it's to function in shut collaboration with biologists really expert in venomous arthropod systematics and biology.

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Pharmacology of Toxins in Crabs As mentioned in the preceding sections, several toxins were postulated to be present in crabs, but only the pharmacological properties of Zosimus aeneus and of Lophozozymus pietor toxins have been studied to some extent. I. Z. , 1967). Recently, its blocking activity to nerve excitation has been studied by DEGUCHI et ai. (Unpublished data) in comparison with tetrodotoxin. 1. Poisoning Cases and Symptoms We located 19 human intoxications following the ingestion of toxic crabs in the Ryukyu and Amami Islands.

Two specimens from American Samoa are also nontoxic, but the number of specimens is too small to regard it as a nontoxic area. The intestine of this species has been reputed to be poisonous in Samoa (HOL THUIS, 1968). Thus, the diversity of opinion among the previous authors on the toxicity of this species may be attributable to individual and regional variations. A. jloridus was reported some time ago to be responsible for the death of a Filipino (BANNER: Private communication, 1968) and not to be used as food by the natives of Amboina (HOLTHUIS, 1968).

4. Myriapoda: body divided into two parts, head and trunk, the latter formed by segments very similar to each other, most of which bear legs; one pair of antennae on the head. III. The Chelicerata Venomous forms of this group exist only in the class Arachnida (about 40,000 species described), which includes mostly terrestrial arthropods divided into many orders. The general form of the body (" compact" or clearly divided into two segments) and especially the modifications of the pedipalpi enable them to be readily identified and classified.

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