By Robert B. Burns (auth.)

In discussing psychology and psychotherapy with scholars in either formal and casual settings, it has develop into visible to me that many pros and trainees in wellbeing and fitness, social carrier and schooling spheres usually have misinformed, faulty and infrequently biased perspectives of the goals, ambitions and strategies excited by counselling and psychotherapy. there's a proliferation of remedies, a few outdated, a few new, which produce a complicated kaleidoscope of remedies on provide to a bewildered public. the aim of this article is to provide in a comparatively short, target shape quite a few present theories and practices in counselling or psychotherapy. this is often tough to do simply because brevity can itself result in misunder­ status, misrepresentation or biased conception. the author hopes that such has no longer happened. The textual content surveys the bewildering diversity of cures on hand inside of and out of doors the overall healthiness, Social and academic prone, to let clever execs in these prone to be extra conscious of and delicate to the remedies their consumers are present process, could suffer or have passed through. bills of psychotherapeutic support are usually buried in recondite journals, frequently inaccessible to medical professionals, nurses, paramedics, social staff and academics performing at 'the coal face'. Few articles ever test a complete surveyor rapprochement; most easily argue for one remedy in a biased promotion.

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In Jung's words, 'The collective unconscious contains the whole spiritual heritage of mankind's evolution born anew in the brain structure of every individual' Gung, 1960, p. 158), as a whole of animal life and of man's primate ancestors. It is the psychic residue of man's evolutionary development, a residue of repeated experiences over many 46 COUNSELLING AND THERAPY generations. It is almost entirely detached from anything personal in the life of an individual and it is seemingly universal. g.

Extrovert, introvert and complex, as well as devising the word-association test. Jung never fully accepted the theory of infantile sexuality that Freud considered the touchstone of psychoanalysis. In the Jungian model, behaviour is still driven by the libido, butJung's libido is non-sexual and represents the life force which underlies all natural phenomena, including the human psyche. For Jung, the libido is life itself and sexuality is only one manifestation of it. Similarly, J ung accepts Freud's notion of psychosexual development as a series of stages related to bodily functions, but he redefines the stages and associated conflicts, such as the Oedipus complex, in terms of his own idea of psychodynamics.

Instead he used the technique of amplification, expanding the dream content in dramatic terms within the dreamer's life (as by asking the patient to imagine his way further into the dream scenario), and then situating the forms of the dream within the world tradition of myth and symbol. In this way the dream itself was revealed to be a higher form of cognition, guiding the client to a superordinate knowledge rather than leading to what he had to hide. J ung regarded this technique as the way to bring a person into greater and greater contact with the deep unconscious; and this contact itself without any external practice or mediation with the personal unconscious, was considered the main healing principle.

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