By W. H. Campbel (auth.), Wallace H. Campbell (eds.)

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The Total Longitudinal Conductance of Sedimentary Cover and Water Shell of the Earth (Nauka, Moscow 1978) 15 pp. (in Russian). FAINBERG, E. , Global geomagnetic sounding, In Mathematical Modeling of Electromagnetic Fields (lZMIRAN, Moscow 1983) pp. 79-121 (in Russian). FAINBERG, E. , KUVSHINOV. A. , and SINGER, B. Sh. (1990a), Electromagnetic Induction in a Spherical Earth with Nonuniform Oceans and Continents in Electric Contact with the Underlying Medium: I-Theory, Methods and Example, Geophys.

5 Re distant in the geomagnetic equatorial plane of the earth. The ring current is fed by field-aligned currents connecting to the tail region of the magnetosphere and to the ionosphere. The field and particle interactions actually generate two oppositely directed ring current regions. The outer, westward flowing ring dominates the disturbance contributions to the field at the earth with a southward, axially-directed world-wide component. Vol. 134, 1990 Magnetospheric Disturbance Ring Current 547 This ring current field reaches its maximum value during the superposed substorm contributions to the Main Phase of the geomagnetic storm.

In general terms, the solar wind drives a convection of the magnetosphere which dissipates in the geomagnetic storm-related processes. The storm energy is divided between the input to the auroral ionosphere, the creation of the ring current, and the magnetospheric down-tail processes. The storm SC's are related to the arrival of the solar wind hydromagnetic shocks at the geomagnetic field interface (stand-off point); the SC size is roughly proportional to the square root of the solar wind dynamic pressure.

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