By Adrian Room

The really expert jargon of a few activities could be very esoteric. Non-Americans, for instance, are most likely questioned through baseball phrases reminiscent of bunt, cut-off guy, and defense squeeze, whereas non-British (as good as a couple of British) are most likely questioned by way of cricket's Chinaman, doosra, golden duck, off-break, popping crease, and yorker. This new dictionary provides the definitions of over 8,000 phrases utilized in activities and video games from around the globe, together with mainstream activities like basketball and billiards along the extra vague netball and snooker. Entries conceal activities gear, ideas, venues, qualifying different types, awards, and administrative our bodies, whereas a finished approach of cross-references deals information and rationalization whilst wanted. One appendix lists general abbreviations of activities ruling our bodies and administrative enterprises.

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Extra resources for Dictionary of Sports and Games Terminology

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And two in Canada, first held in 1866 can of corn (baseball ) colloquial term for an easy catch for a fielder [said to derive from the can on a stack in a grocery that a sales clerk would knock down with a stick and catch] Canada Cup ( golf ) former name of the World Cup Canadian canoe (canoeing) a long narrow canoe propelled by a single-bladed paddle Canadian football (sport) a game similar to American football but with 12 players a side and a longer field of play Canadian Grand Prix (auto racing) the Formula One international Grand Prix held on the Gilles Villeneuve circuit at Montreal, Canada Canadiens (ice hockey) short name of the Montreal Canadiens team Canal Turn (horse racing) a difficult jump on the Grand National course at Aintree Canaries (association football ) nickname of the English club Norwich City [either from the local former breeding and exhibition of canaries, or from the city’s mustard-making industry, with the associated color represented in the yellow shirts of the players] cannon (billiards) the striking of both the red and one’s opponent’s ball in a single shot; (croquet) a croquet shot and roquet made in a single stroke; (snooker) a shot in which the cue ball deflects from the object ball into another ball [altered form of carom] cannon game (billiards) another term for carom billiards cannon-off (bowls) a delivery in which one bowl rebounds at an angle from another cannonball • cartwheel cannonball (tennis) colloquial term for a fast serve canoe (canoeing) the light, narrow, flat-bottomed boat, propelled by one or more paddles, that is used for the sport canoe polo (water polo) a form of the game in which the participants are in short canoes using double paddles canoeing (sport) (1) a contest between canoeists; (2) the pastime of traveling in canoes canoeist (canoeing) (1) a competitor in canoeing; (2) a person who travels in a canoe canopy (parachuting) the overhead, expanding part of a parachute canopy formation (parachuting) the stacked formation adopted by skydivers once their canopies have opened canter (equestrianism) a horse’s gait, slower than a gallop but faster than a trot, in which three legs are off the ground at the same time [shortening of Canterbury gallop, from the easy pace at which medieval pilgrims rode to Canterbury] Canucks (ice hockey) short name of the Vancouver Canucks team canvas (boxing) the floor of a ring; (rowing) a term used to describe the measure of lead between two boats in a close race, fixed as the length between the bow and the first oarsman [properly the covering over the ends of the boat, originally made of canvas] canyoning (sport) an extreme sport in which participants jump into a fast-flowing mountain stream or waterfall and allow themselves to be swept rapidly downstream cap (association football ) (1) a commemorative cap given to a national player each time he plays in an international match; (2) an appearance by a national player at international level; ( general ) a distinguishing cap worn by a player or participant in a particular sport Capitals (ice hockey) short name of the Washington Capitals team capriole (equestrianism) an element of dressage in which the horse leaps up with all four feet off the ground and kicks its back legs at the height of the jump [Old French capriole, “leap”] captain ( general ) the leader of a sports team or club Captain Armstrong (horse racing) a jockey who holds his horse back with a “strong arm” in order to stop it drawing ahead captain’s pick ( general ) (1) a player selected for a team by its captain; (2) an outstanding player carabiner (mountaineering) a steel link with a spring clip in one side through which a rope can be threaded in abseiling [German Karabinerhaken, “spring hook”] carambole (billiards) the formal name of a carom 28 card ( golf ) shortening of scorecard; (horse racing) shortening of racecard Cardinals (American football ) short name of the Arizona Cardinals team; (baseball ) short name of the St.

Louis Cardinals team cardio ( general ) exercises to tone the circulatory system, carried out in a gymnasium and typically involving equipment such as the treadmill or exercise bike and cross-training [abbreviation of cardiovascular exercises] Carling Cup (association football ) the cup for which teams in the Football League compete [to 1982 called the League Cup, a name still popularly current, and after that date successively the Milk Cup, Littlewoods Cup, Rumbelows Cup, Coca Cola Cup, and Worthington Cup, eventually adopting its present sponsored name in 2003] Carlisle (horse racing) a flat and National Hunt racecourse at Carlisle, Cumbria, England Carnoustie ( golf ) the course near Dundee, Scotland, that until 1975 hosted the Open Championship carom (billiards) another term for a cannon [shortening of carambole, from French carombole, from Spanish carambola, “the red ball in billiards”] carom ball (cricket) a ball bowled by a spin bowler with a flick of his middle finger [named after carom as an Indian board game in which disks are flicked onto the table] carom billiards (billiards) a form of billiards played on a table with no pockets and thus consisting in making a series of cannons carpet (bowls) the surface on which indoor bowls is played; (cricket) the surface of the pitch and the outfield; ( golf ) (1) colloquial term for the fairway; (2) colloquial term for the putting green carriage driving (equestrianism) a discipline in which a two- or four-wheeled carriage with one or more horses competes in dressage, a crosscountry time trial, and the negotiation of a winding course marked out by cones carrot (croquet) the part of the hoop below the ground carry ( golf ) the distance a ball travels through the air before touching the ground at or near its destination; (ice hockey) to advance the puck down the ice by controlling it with one’s stick carry one’s bat (cricket) to remain not out after batting throughout an innings cart ( golf ) shortening of golf cart CART Championship (auto racing) former name of the ChampCar Championship [acronym of Championship Autoracing Teams] Cartmel (horse racing) a National Hunt racecourse at Cartmel, Cumbria, England cartwheel (bowls) a bowl delivered with a marked 29 bias; ( g ymnastics) a sideways somersault with arms and legs extended carving (skiing) a technique of making fast turns by turning the skis so that the edges cut into the snow; (snowboarding) a technique of making fast turns by turning the board so that the edge cuts into the snow; (surfing) the execution of large smooth turns on a wave carving skis (skiing) skis specifically designed for carving Cas (rugby league) short name of the English club Castleford Tigers cast (angling) the throwing of a fishing line or net; (trampolining) a sideways movement across the bed castle (cricket) colloquial term for the wicket defended by the batsman casual water ( golf ) a pool of water caused by rain or flooding, from where a ball can be repositioned without penalty cat (sailing) shortening of catamaran cat stance (karate) a position in which the front foot is raised ready to kick cat-twist back drop (trampolining) a full twist to a back drop catamaran (sailing) a boat with two hulls catch (angling) (1) the capture of a fish; (2) the amount of fish caught; (baseball ) the catching by a fielder of the ball hit by the batter before it touches the ground, so that he is out; (bowls) a bowl that prevents another from passing; (cricket) the catching by a fielder of the ball hit by the batsman before it touches the ground, so that he is out; ( general ) a simple game, popular among children, in which a ball is thrown and caught in turn; (rowing) the moment when the blade enters the water at the beginning of the stroke catch a crab (rowing) to sink the oar too deep (or not deep enough) in the water, causing the rower to fall back and the boat to be jolted and even halted [as if the oar had been caught by a crab] catch and kick (Gaelic football ) to catch the ball and instantly kick it as a pass catch and release (angling) the practice of releasing a fish after it has been caught and weighed catch-as-catch-can (wrestling) a form of the sport in which any hold is allowed catch-waist camel spin (ice skating) in pair skating, a camel spin with the free legs pointing in opposite directions and each partner’s arms around the other’s waist catcher (baseball ) the fielder positioned behind the batter catenaccio (association football ) a rigidly defensive system of play introduced in the 1960s by the carving • center Italian club Inter Milan, comprising four defenders, three midfielders, and three attackers [Italian catenaccio, “bolt”] Cats (Australian Rules) short name of the Geelong Cats team cats on the counter (darts) the winning of a game [said to derive from the “cats” or large drinking pots that the losers were obliged to line up on the counter before the next game] Catterick (horse racing) a flat and National Hunt racecourse at Catterick Bridge, North Yorkshire, England catworm (angling) a worm (Nephthys hombergi) commonly used as bait caught (cricket) (of ) a batsman whose stroke resulted in a catch, so that he is out caught and bowled (cricket) (of ) a batsman whose stroke gave a catch to the bowler caught behind (cricket) (of ) a batsman whose stroke gave a catch to the wicketkeeper (who is behind the wicket) Caulfield Cup (horse racing) the cup awarded to the winner of an annual race at Caulfield, Melbourne, Australia, first run in 1879 cauliflower ear (boxing) an ear permanently swollen and disfigured by repeated blows [in appearance resembling the clumped shape of a cauliflower] caution (association football ) another term for a booking; (boxing) a reprimand given to a boxer by the referee following an infringement, three such reprimands usually resulting in a warning Cavaliers (basketball) short name of the Cleveland Cavaliers team caver (caving) a person who explores caves caving (sport) the exploration of caves cavity back (golf ) a clubhead with a depression on the back Celtic League (rugby union) a contest between major Irish, Welsh, and Scottish teams, introduced in 2001 [the teams come from the Celtic countries of the British Isles] Celtics (basketball) short name of the Boston Celtics team center (American football ) the player in the center of the offensive line who begins the play with a snap of the ball to a player in the backfield; (archery, shooting) the area of the target between the bull and the outer; (association football ) a kick from either of the wings to the center of the pitch; (Australian Rules) a player in midfield; (basketball) the position of a player immediately under the basket; (field hockey) a pass from either of the wings to the center of the pitch; (lacrosse) a midfield player who competes in the draw and links play between defense and at- center back • challenge tack; (netball ) a player who can operate anywhere on the court except in the shooting circle; (rugby league, rugby union) one of the two three-quarters in the center of the pitch center back (association football ) a player in the middle of the defense center bounce (Australian Rules) another term for a ball up center circle (association football ) the circle painted on the middle of the pitch, at the center of which is the center spot center field (baseball ) the part of the outfield directly behind second base as viewed from home plate center fielder (baseball ) the fielder positioned in center field center forward (association football, field hockey) the central player in the line of forwards center half (association football, field hockey) the central player behind the center forward center half back (Australian Rules) a defensive player operating near the middle of the 50meter arc center half-forward (Australian Rules) an attacking player operating behind the full forward center line (ice hockey) another term for the red line center pass (field hockey) the pass that starts the game, made by a center from the center spot to a teammate; (netball ) the throw from the center of the court that starts the game center service line (tennis) the line parallel to the tramlines that divides the right and left service courts center spot (association football ) the painted spot in the center of the pitch from which the kickoff is made at the start of each half and after the scoring of a goal; (billiards) the spot on the billiard table midway between the two middle pockets, corresponding to the blue spot in snooker center square (Australian Rules) the square marked in the center of the oval center three-quarter (rugby union) one of the two middle players in the line of three-quarters centerboard (sailing) a retractable keel or fin centerman (ice hockey) the forward playing between two wingers Central American and Caribbean Games (Olympics) regional games held since 1926 for competitors from the countries of Central America and the Caribbean Central American Games (Olympics) the name to 1935 of the Central American and Caribbean Games central circle (wrestling) the inner circle of the mat central contract (cricket) the contracting of a player 30 to his national team as well as to his county or state team central fire (shooting) (of ) a cartridge with its fulminate in the center of the base central wrestling area (wrestling) the circle on the mat between the passivity zone and the central circle centre ( general ) another spelling of center Centre Court (tennis) the central and most important court at Wimbledon, where the final of the championships is played centurion (cricket) a batsman who scores a century Centurions (rugby league) short name of the English club Leigh Centurions century (cricket) a score of 100 runs by a batsman; (snooker) a break of 100 or more points Cesarewitch (horse racing) an annual handicap at Newmarket, first run in 1839 [inaugurated by the tsesarevich, the heir to the Russian throne who became Alexander II (1818–1881)] chain gang (American football ) the members of the officiating team who measure the 10 yards needed to gain a new set of downs chainring (cycling) the gear wheel that drives the chain chains (American football ) a method employed by the officiating team to measure the yardage needed to gain a new set of downs chainwheel (cycling) another term for the chainring Chair (horse racing) a jump on the Grand National course at Aintree Chairboys (association football ) nickname of the English club Wycombe Wanderers [from the furniture-making industry in the town of High Wycombe] chairlift (skiing) a set of seats suspended on cables used to transport skiers uphill chairman (wrestling) one of the three officials in charge of a bout, the others being the judge and the referee chalk (snooker) the small cube of colored chalk rubbed on the tip of the cue to give a good contact when striking the cue ball; (weightlifting) the magnesium carbonate powder (not actually chalk) applied by weightlifters to their hands to help them grip the barbell chalk eater (horse racing) colloquial term for a punter who bets only on the favorite [he follows the bookmaker as he writes up the latest odds in chalk] challenge ( general ) an invitation to take part in a sporting contest, especially to a reigning champion Challenge Cup (rugby league) the leading British cup competition, first held in 1929 challenge match ( general ) a match held as a challenge 31 challenger ( general ) a person who takes up a challenge, especially to a reigning champion champ ( general ) colloquial shortening of champion champagne breakfast (darts) a score in a single throw of treble 20, treble 5, and treble 1, bettering a breakfast ChampCar (auto racing) a finely tuned car, but with a smaller engine than a Formula One car, that takes part in the annual championship of this name [short for Championship Car] champion ( general ) a competitor who has excelled all others, especially in boxing Champion Hurdle (horse racing) an annual race at Cheltenham, first run in 1927 Champion Jockey (horse racing) the title of the jockey who rides the most winners in a particular season, in both flat racing and National Hunt Champions’ Dinner ( golf ) popular name for the Masters Club Champions League (association football ) informal name of the UEFA Champions League Champions Trophy (cricket) an annual one-day international tournament first held in 1998, regarded as the most important of its kind after the World Cup; (field hockey) an annual tournament first held in 1978 Championship (association football ) the group of teams that replaced Division 1 in 2004; ( general ) short title of a particular championship, as the Open Championship in golf championship (general) (1) a contest held to determine who will be champion; (2) the title awarded to the winner of such a contest chance ( general ) an opportunity of achieving a positive result during a match, such as dismissing a batsman in cricket or scoring a goal in association football change (cricket) the substitution of one bowler (or type of bowling) for another during a match; (horse racing) the fractions of a second taken to declare the time of the first four horses in a race change bowler (cricket) a bowler who relieves the regular bowlers in a match change ends ( general ) to switch from occupying one half of an area of play, as a pitch or court, to the other, so changing the direction of play change-foot spin (ice skating) a spin in which a jump is made from one foot to the other change-up (baseball ) an unexpectedly slow pitch intended to deceive the batter changeover (athletics) the handing over of the baton by one runner to another in a relay race; ( general ) the point in a game or match at which the two sides change ends changing room ( general ) a room or premises at a sports ground where players change their challenger • checking clothes before and after a game and discuss tactics Chanticleers (rugby league) the English name for the French national Tricolores team [from Chanticleer as a name for the domestic cock, the symbolic bird of France] chap and lie (bowls) to deliver a bowl so that it hits another and takes its place; (curling) to deliver a stone so that it hits another and takes its place charge ( golf ) to play a round aggressively charge down (rugby league, rugby union) to run toward a kicked ball and block it with the hands or body Chargers (American football ) short name of the San Diego Chargers team charging (basketball) the offense of running into a stationary defender while in possession of the ball charity event (general) an amateur contest, such as a race or match, organized to raise money for charity charity stripe (basketball) colloquial term for the foul line charity toss (basketball) colloquial term for a free throw chase (real tennis) the second impact of an unreturned ball, for which the player scores unless his opponent betters it by a similar impact nearer the end wall; (horse racing) shortening of steeplechase chase track (horse racing) a racetrack with fences (for a steeplechase) chaser (cycling) a rider who is trying to catch up with a break; (horse racing) a horse that competes in steeplechases chassé (ice skating) a sequence in which the foot that is not in contact with the ice moves up next to the skating foot without passing it and replaces it as the skating foot [French chassé, “chase”] cheap (cricket) (of ) a wicket taken after the batsman has scored only a few runs check (ice hockey) the (legitimate) blocking of an opponent’s forward progress with one’s shoulder or hip check side (snooker) a side that causes the cue ball to rebound off the cushion at less of an angle than in a normally struck shot checkdown (American football ) a short pass to a running back as a final option when the wide receivers are covered checkered flag (auto racing) another spelling of chequered flag checking (trampolining) the technique of absorbing the recoil from the bed by flexing the body at the hips, knees, and ankles checkmark • Chipolopolo checkmark (athletics) the indicator on the track that tells the incoming runner in a relay race when he should start to accelerate checkout (darts) a score that wins a game in one turn cheekpieces (horse racing) strips of sheepskin sewn onto each side of a horse’s bridle to help it concentrate its attention on the course ahead, much in the manner of blinkers cheer squad (general) volunteer supporters drafted in to empty spectator seats in a stadium cheerleader ( general ) one of a team of uniformly dressed young women who spur on a sports team with coordinated shouts, cheers, and chanting cheese (skittles) the heavy wooden ball used to knock down the skittles cheesecake (tenpin bowling) a lane in which it is easy to make high scores chef de mission (Olympics) the person who supports, promotes, and generally guides a national team [French chef de mission, “mission leader”] chef d’équipe ( general ) the person generally responsible for a team’s practical arrangements, especially when they are traveling [French chef d’équipe, “team leader”] Cheltenham (horse racing) a flat and National Hunt racecourse at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England, the location of the Cheltenham Gold Cup Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy (cricket) the trophy awarded to the winners of an annual oneday competition of 60 overs per side, first held in 1963 [originally the Gillette Cup but renamed in 2001 for new sponsors] Cheltenham Gold Cup (horse racing) the cup awarded to the winner of an annual steeplechase at Cheltenham, first run in 1924 and now regarded as the greatest prize of the National Hunt Chepstow (horse racing) a flat and National Hunt racecourse at Chepstow, Gwent, Wales chequered flag (auto racing) the black-and-white flag indicating the end of a race, shown to the winner and to each subsequent car that crosses the finishing line cherries (greyhound racing) colloquial term for the racetrack [rhyming slang for dogs, from Cockney cherry hogs, “cherry pits”] Cherries (association football ) nickname of the English club Bournemouth [from the red shirts of the players] cherry (cricket) colloquial term for a new ball [from its color and its “virginity”] chest (association football ) to hit or direct the ball with the chest chest pass (basketball) a pass in which the player holds the ball at chest level then passes it to a teammate without bouncing it 32 chest trap (association football ) control of the ball using the chest Chester (horse racing) a flat racecourse at Chester, Cheshire, England chewy on your boot!

Corbett (1876–1949)] Cork (horse racing) a flat and National Hunt racecourse at Mallow, Co.

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