By Warren Robertson

This interdisciplinary research integrates textual research of the Hebrew Bible and similar historic close to japanese fabric with social concept and archaeology on the way to articulate the traditional Israelites' taken-for-granted understandings (doxa) of average mess ups, their highbrow and theological demanding situations to these understandings, and their highbrow and theological reconstructions thereof. After a survey of textual and archaeological facts for typical failures within the historic close to japanese and Mediterranean international, Robertson demonstrates that universal understandings of them are forged by way of punishment for covenant infidelity. in spite of the fact that, while typical mess ups are understood as such, their arbitrary destruction demanding situations these taken-for-granted assumptions. The conflict among cognitive expectation and experiential truth produces cognitive dissonance. Responses, then, are available the try to go back to cognitive, if no longer social, stability.

Several responses have been practiced and articulated by means of the traditional Israelites concerning the retributive figuring out of normal (and different communal) failures: steer clear of and/or try to hinder the disrupting adventure by using apotropaic and different ritual innovations, protest the anguish of the blameless, revise the assumptions approximately divine punishment and/or divine personality, revise the assumptions approximately human activities, or melancholy of making a choice on any correlation among human motion and divine punishment.

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Extra resources for Drought, Famine, Plague and Pestilence: Ancient Israel's Understandings of and Responses to Natural Catastrophes

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E. 16 Barbara Bell, pointing to a severe failure of the annual flood of the Nile, maintains that drought and famine, as a single cause, precipitated the “First Dark Age” of Egypt, ca. ) . . ) and the land was in the wind, . . (and when everyone was dying) of hunger (r . . E. Weiss describes a period of “desertification” in the Khabur plains, the region of Tell Leilan, during this period. He states, Soil micromorphology studies (thin sections of datable pedostratigraphic units) undertaken at Tell Leilan and sites within the surrounding countryside have revealed a rapid alteration of climatic conditions for this period: a sudden intensification of wind circulation; an increase in atmospheric dust; and the establishment of arid conditions.

Stott; Nashville: Abingdon, 1981); Irving L. Finkel and Markham J. Geller, eds. Disease in Babylonia (CM 36; Leiden: Brill, 2007). 76 Others have focused on the origins and/or diagnoses of specific diseases in their ancient contexts. 79 These works do not attempt, however, to analyze ancient Israel’s understandings of disease. ”81 76Hector Avalos, Illness and Health Care in the Ancient Near East: The Role of the Temple in Greece, Mesopotamia, and Israel (HSM 54; Atlanta: Scholar’s Press, 1995).

See also William MacArthur, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46 (1952): 209-12, 464; John B. Geyer, “Mice and Rites in 1 Samuel 5-6,” VT 31 (1981): 293-304; and Lawrence I. Conrad, “The Biblical Tradition of the Plague of the Philistines,” JAOS 104 (1984), 281-87. John Wilkinson, “The Quail Epidemic of Numbers 11:31-34,” EvQ 71 (1999): 203-8. See also, larger more general works such as D. Brothwell and A. S. Sandison, eds. : Charles C. Thomas,1967). 79 Martinez, “Epidemic Disease,” 426.

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