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47 Education and Culture in the Political Thought of Aristotle then whether it is more advantageous for this to be a common concern or one managed privately-which is the way it is now in most cities-and third , of what sort this should be " ( 1 33 7a3 - 7 ) . Aristotle ' s immediate concern continues to be education in its emphatic sense-the education (paideia) of children (paides) or, more generally , of the young. But we have found reason to believe that the question\()f education is not identical with the question of the education of the young; and if Book VIII appears at first sight to be devoted wholly to the lat­ ter question-if, indeed , it appears to identify education altogether with the education of the young-it is necessary to bear in mind both the range and flexibility of the term paideia itself and the fact that Politics VIII as we have it by no means represents Aristotle ' s last word on the subject of education .

1 338a30-b4]30 There are , it seems , two kinds of education that will be taught to the young. In the first place , there must be an education in " the useful things . " But while an education of this kind is in­ deed indispensable , the requirements of utility must not be allowed to dominate education as a whole . The useful things are to be taught not only on account of their usefulness but because ' ' they make further kinds of learning possible ' ' ; they are to be taught "with a view to " a more advanced kind of education , an education wholly unconcerned with the merely useful .

Barker's "liable " gives the normal meaning of the word . 52 Education sciences ' ' of which Aristotle is thinking are those arts that may be pursued or that are primarily pursued ' ' with a view to the professional contests " (pros tous agonas tous technikous, 1 34 1 a 1 0- 1 1 ; cf. b8- 1 0) or for the sake of public performance or display . He is thinking in particular of music , and of the cor­ rupting effect of a professional or " technical " education in music . An education of this sort is harmful above all to the soul because it encourages the desire to please and hence to adapt oneself to a "vulgar" audience of illiberal tastes ( 1 34 1 b8- 1 8) .

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