By Karel Driesen (auth.)

The implementation of object-oriented languages has been an energetic subject of study because the Sixties whilst the 1st Simula compiler used to be written. the subject obtained renewed curiosity within the early Eighties with the becoming acclaim for object-oriented programming languages resembling c++ and Smalltalk, and obtained one other strengthen with the arrival of Java. Polymorphic calls are on the center of object-oriented languages, or even the 1st implementation of Simula-67 contained their vintage implementation through digital functionality tables. in truth, digital functionality tables predate even Simula-for instance, Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad drawing editor hired very comparable buildings in 1960. equally, throughout the Seventies and Nineteen Eighties the implementers of Smalltalk structures spent massive efforts on enforcing polymorphic demands this dynamically typed language the place digital functionality tables couldn't be used. Given this lengthy historical past of analysis into the implementation of polymorphic calls, and the rather mature status it completed over the years, why, one may possibly ask, should still there be a brand new e-book during this box? the answer's basic. either software program and have replaced significantly lately, to the purpose the place many assumptions underlying the unique paintings during this box aren't any longer actual. particularly, digital functionality tables are not any longer adequate to enforce polymorphic calls even for statically typed languages; for instance, Java's interface calls can't be carried out this manner. in addition, contemporary processors are deeply pipelined and will execute directions out-of­ order, making it tough to foretell the execution time of even basic code sequences.

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These two make extremely heavy use of multiple inheritance: on average every class inherits from two super classes. 3 COMPRESSION RESULTS Table 5 shows the compression results of our measurements. Selector-based row displacement performs very well on single-inheritance samples (all samples with "-" in column P). 5% for all self-contained examples, and more than 98% for the smaller ones. The technique scales up well: contrary to selector coloring and class-based row displacement, compression improves as libraries grow in size.

2. Each description of a dispatch technique includes pseudo-code illustrating the run-time dispatch. Since our analysis separates out the influence of dynamic typing and multiple inheritance/hardwired instance variable offsets, two typographical conventions mark code used to support one of these functions. Italic code supports multiple inheritance, and bold code supports dynamic typing. Appendix A collects the assembly call sequences and instruction scheduling. 2 DYNAMIC TECHNIQUES Dynamic techniques speed up message lookup by using various forms of caching at run-time.

35% of the total area is potential overhead (gray). As mentioned before, this table resulted in 93% fill rate, so 7% of the 35% became real overhead. 5% real overhead. Out of an array with 1388 entries, only 3 are unoccupied, and even these gaps are caused by contention over row offsets by one-entry rows, not by true fitting conflicts (remember that all rows need to have unique offsets in the compressed array). 3, we will present compression results for several other single inheritance class libraries.

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