By Jack Kenneth Holmes

Glance to this state-of-the-art source for a contemporary remedy of unfold spectrum (SS) communications, together with direct series and frequency hopping. The publication is helping the functionality of SS structures lower than the effect of jamming and with and with no coding. you discover info at the synchronization of SS platforms, together with preliminary acquisition and monitoring. The booklet discusses correlation loss that will help you ascertain the influence of filters at the correlation technique. furthermore, for the 1st time in any booklet, you discover info on code acquisition and code monitoring with channel filtering.

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Extra resources for Spread Spectrum Systems for GNSS and Wireless Communications

Example text

Normally, the modulation tones are spaced far enough apart so that they are orthogonal. Thus the spacing of the tones would be 1/( TCBlog2M) = 1/Ts Hz apart. The corresponding modulation bandwidth is therefore approximately BWb = M/(TCB log2M) = M/Ts Hz. Now after each Th seconds a new hop frequency is transmitted, and after each Ts seconds a new modulation frequency is transmitted. Normally the hop and modulation tones start at the same clock time and the hop frequency changes every NTs = Th seconds.

At this point the signal portion of the received waveform is a despread (the spreading is removed) signal containing only the BPSK data modulated signal. To demodulate BPSK data, it is necessary to provide a local carrier in phase synchronism with the received carrier. This entails acquiring the carrier phase, tracking the carrier phase, and using the regenerated carrier to demodulate the data. 4-2(f), plus a noise term; however, the noise is not shown for clarification purposes. It has been assumed that the term at 2 o has been neglected, since it would normally be negligible due to the filter action of the detector filter or a filter would be used in the design to attenuate the 2 0 term.

1 Data –1 s2(t) QPSK : PN 2 (t − Tˆp ) Bandpass Filter Ch. 4-12 QPSK data modulation with QPSK SS modulation: (a) the transmitter and (b) the receiver. 2-16) where the index 1 refers to the cosine (or inphase) carrier and the index 2 refers to the sine (or quadrature) carrier, and the data summations and the sequence summations have been written in concise notation. 2-16). 2-17) An Introduction to Spread Spectrum Systems 27 and they may not be equal, although they often are in practice. If they are equal and A1=A2=A, then the power P = A2.

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