By Margaret E. Beare

Transnational crimes contain border crossings as an essential component of the illegal activity. in addition they contain crimes that ensue in a single state with outcomes that considerably have an effect on different nations. Examples contain human trafficking, smuggling (arms, medicines, currency), intercourse slavery, non-domestic terrorism, and monetary crimes. Transnational equipped crime refers in particular to transnational crime performed by way of prepared crime syndicates. even if numerous encyclopedias conceal elements of transnational crime, it's this encyclopedia's emphasis on transnational justice, in addition, that differentiates it from the pack. not just can we outline, describe, and chart the crimes and criminality, we will also comprise major insurance of policing these crimes and prosecuting them inside household and foreign courtroom structures. obtainable and jargon-free and to be had in either print and digital codecs, the one-volume Encyclopedia of Transnational Crime and Justice will include such entries as fingers smuggling, paintings fraud, charity fraud, hacking and desktop viruses, copyright infringement, counterfeiting, drug smuggling, extradition, human trafficking, intelligence organizations, foreign banking legislation, net scams, Interpol, funds laundering, toxins and waste disposal, expense solving, prosecution, sanctions, intercourse slavery, tax evasion, terrorism, conflict crimes, the realm courtroom, and more.

Features & Benefits:

  • 150 signed entries (each with pass References and additional Readings) are prepared in A-to-Z style to offer scholars easy accessibility to the whole diversity of issues in transnational crime and justice.
  • A thematic Reader's consultant within the entrance topic teams entries by means of huge topical or thematic components to make it effortless for clients to discover similar entries at a glance.
  • In the digital model, the Reader's advisor combines with an in depth Index and the move References to supply clients with handy search-and-browse capacities.
  • A Chronology within the again subject is helping scholars placed person occasions into broader ancient context.
  • A thesaurus offers scholars with concise definitions of keyword phrases within the field.
  • A source consultant to vintage books, journals, and websites (along with the extra Readings accompanying every one access) is helping advisor scholars to additional assets of their study journeys.
  • An Appendix comprises the Congressional study provider document on foreign Terrorism and Transnational Crime.

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6 million behind one dealer’s freshly plastered walls in his home. Conclusion Thomas Ray, chief auditor of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), says that a large number of financial frauds are accomplished by simply booking late entries. “It’s the easiest way to commit fraud. , cooked the books for four years, overstating profits by $50 million without Price Waterhouse Coopers’ knowledge. Just as termites never sleep, fraud never sleeps, and just like termites, fraud can destroy the foundation of an entity.

Indicated that between 200 and 500 publicly traded companies listed in the United States, 3 or about 5 to 12 percent of the total, have to restate their earnings each year. Some motivations for fraudulent behavior are meeting external or internal expectations, concealing bad performance, preparing for a debt/equity offering, improving management compensation (for example, through stock options), and covering up fraud. Abusive earnings management would include the following: • Improper revenue recognition (such as bill and hold sales) • Improper expense recognition • Using reserves to inflate earnings in years with falling revenues (cookie-jar accounting) • Shifting debt to a special-purpose entity (SPE) • Channel stuffing • Capitalizing rather than expensing marketing costs • Extending useful lives and inflating salvage values • Accelerating revenue from leasing equipment • SPEs that are not consolidated Early warning signs of earnings management include the following: • Cash flows that are not correlated with earnings • Receivables that are not correlated with revenues • Allowances for uncollectible accounts that are not correlated with receivables • Reserves that are not correlated with balancesheet items • Acquisitions with no apparent business purpose • Earnings that consistently and precisely meet analyst’s expectations The 2010 COSO fraud report indicates that revenue recognition schemes are used 61 percent of the time to cook the books, followed by overstating assets (51 percent), understatement of expenses and liabilities (31 percent), and misappropriation of assets (14 percent).

Another example is the United States War Crimes Act, which codifies several instruments of international law. Section 2441 of Title 18 of the United States Code 10 Adjudicating International Crimes proscribes crimes against humanity, genocide, and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. Other examples of national prosecutions related to international crime include Article 101 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which defines acts of piracy on the high seas, including theft, hostage taking, and other acts of violence or depredation.

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