By Stefan Mauss, Thomas Berg, Juergen Rockstroh, Christoph Sarrazin, Heiner Wedemeyer

Hepatology is a swiftly constructing zone of drugs. The interesting new oral remedies for HCV, breakthroughs within the remedy of continual hepatitis B, and the id of genes linked to metabolic liver illnesses are only a few highlights. Hepatology 2012 is an updated resource of knowledge for physicians, citizens and complicated clinical scholars looking a broader figuring out of liver sickness.

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Individuals who have had no post-vaccination testing should be tested for anti-HBs titer as soon as possible. If this is not possible, or the anti-HBs titer is insufficient (<100 IU/l), they will require a second course of vaccination. Individuals who are documented non-responders will require two doses of HBIG given one month apart. Natural history and clinical manifestations The spectrum of clinical manifestations of HBV infection varies in both acute and chronic disease. During the acute phase, manifestations range from subclinical or anicteric hepatitis to icteric hepatitis and, in some cases, fulminant hepatitis.

Acute hepatitis may rarely proceed to acute liver failure; liver transplantation is required in few cases. In the US, 4% of all liver transplantations performed for acute liver failure were due to hepatitis A (Ostapowicz 2002). In a cohort of acute liver failures at one transplant center in Germany approximately 1% of patients suffered from HAV infection (Hadem 2008). The outcome of patients after liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis A is excellent. Timely referral to liver transplant centers is therefore recommended for patients with severe or fulminant hepatitis A.

The risk of HBV transmission increases with the number of years of drug use, frequency of injection, and sharing of drug preparation equipment. Other situations with possible percutaneous inoculation of HBV are sharing shaving razors or toothbrushes, although the exact number remains unknown. In addition, certain practices like acupuncture, tattooing, and body piercing have been associated with transmission of hepatitis B. Public health education and the use of disposable needles or equipment are important methods of prevention.

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