By Joydeep Acharya
A accomplished precis of theoretical and useful advancements in LTE Heterogeneous Networks
The final decade has witnessed the proliferation of cellular broadband info and the rage is probably going to extend within the coming years. present mobile networks are sick outfitted to house this surge favourite. to meet consumer call for and maximize earnings, a brand new paradigm to function networks is required. Heterogeneous networks, that set up an overlay of small cells with constrained insurance and transmit strength, over a macro assurance quarter is the answer through delivering means and insurance the place it truly is needed.
This publication offers a finished review of small mobilephone established heterogeneous networks in the framework of 3GPP LTE-Advanced that's the foremost enabler of present and destiny heterogeneous networks. The publication first establishes the fundamentals of LTE criteria eight -10. anywhere proper, the underlying conception of instant communications is defined and the signaling and protocol points of LTE Releases 8-10 are awarded. subsequent the e-book offers a scientific learn of the inter phone interference (eICIC and FeICIC) mechanisms which have been standardized in LTE releases 10 and eleven to mitigate the interference bobbing up in heterogeneous networks. From uncomplicated clean subframe layout and implementation, the booklet discusses extra complex transceiver sign processing and service aggregation (CA) dependent mechanisms to enhance functionality. along with info, regulate channel improvements similar to improved PDCCH (ePDCCH) also are discussed.
Subsequently the e-book discusses the opportunity of base stations being allowed to coordinate to control interference. this system, referred to as CoMP, has the opportunity of greatly bettering community functionality. notwithstanding numerous sensible demanding situations first must be conquer sooner than this capability should be learned. The ebook offers the various CoMP different types brought in LTE liberate eleven, the mandatory sign processing and the alterations that have been brought in Release-11 for aiding CoMP. The e-book then provides the cutting-edge advancements in heterogeneous networks which are presently happening in 3GPP with the initiation of unlock 12. an entire array of recent applied sciences were brought corresponding to dynamic switching of small cells, new provider varieties with decreased keep an eye on signaling, dynamic reconfiguration of TDD-LTE, joint configuration of TDD and FDD through provider aggregation and finally complicated MIMO sign processing with 3 dimensional beamforming. a majority of these applied sciences will paintings in unison resulting in effective operations of small cells.
The authors hence comprehensively summarize the advances in heterogeneous networks during the last couple of years as mirrored in a variety of LTE releases after which glance forward at what to anticipate sooner or later. totally illustrated all through and with an accompanying site together with Matlab code for simulating heterogeneous networks, LTE channel types, and References to 3GPP standards, contributions, and updates on contemporary standardization actions. The authors, being curious about LTE standardization, are good positioned to provide a very good view in this subject, together with beneficial historical past and layout rationale.
- A entire precis of instant communications concept and sensible advancements in LTE heterogeneous networks.
- Authors are specialists during this box and are lively contributors in standardization lawsuits, permitting up to date assurance of present developments
- Multiple case reviews clarify community layout optimization of assorted heterogeneous community deployments.
- Accompanying web site contains Matlab code for simulating heterogeneous networks, LTE channel types, and References to 3GPP requirements, contributions, and updates on fresh standardization activities
Essential interpreting for Engineers and practitioners in instant industry.
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Extra info for Heterogeneous Networks in LTE-Advanced
X2-based handover is initialized by the source eNodeB by sending a HO_REQUEST message to the target eNodeB. Upon receiving the request message, the target eNodeB allocates resources needed for the handover and then responds with a HO_REQUEST_ACK message. In the subsequent handover process, UE PDUs are transferred from the source to the target eNodeB along with other UE information via the User Plane of X2. User PDU transfer can either be seamless, which minimizes the time taken by the handover process, or lossless, which maximizes the reliability of the user data.
5. The MME chooses a P-GW for the UE based on the PDN. To optimize the performance of heterogeneous networks, additional functionalities in the CN may be needed. For example, due to the access to femtocells of the closed subscriber group (CSG), a CSG server is needed in the CN to manage femto-based communications. This is discussed further in Chapter 5. 3 LTE Radio Access Network Recall that E-UTRAN is responsible for radio access of the UE to the LTE network. The E-UTRAN functionalities are implemented by a single node, the eNodeB.
4 OFDM in LTE We have discussed several parameters of OFDM such as FFT size and CP length. In a LTE transmission the values of these parameters are selected based on various theoretical and practical considerations. In this section, we explain these with a series of examples. 1 Consider OFDM transmission over a fading channel with delay spread 5 μs. Let the UE velocity be 350 kmph and the carrier frequency be 4 GHz. How should the OFDM symbol duration and subcarrier spacing values be selected? The CP should be greater than or equal to the delay spread, so a prudent choice would be ∼5 μs.