By J. Nelson Kraybill

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89. Notably Codex Bezae (Cantabrigiensis). 50 Imperial Cult and Commerce in John's Apocalypse only three things: idolatry, fornication and blood. The same tradition adds a negative form of the Golden Rule immediately after the prohibitions: Gentile converts are 'not to do whatever they do not want others to do to them'. This addition makes rejection of 'blood' a prohibition against murder. 20 (29), as rendered in the Western text, makes sense in the light of the figurative categories of Revelation.

In his study of guilds at ancient Ostia, G. Hermansen says a guild 'was a closely knit group. It was a real brotherhood: some guild members called each other brother (frater)... All guild brothers owned all guild property in common, they shared a common cult, and they had a common burial place. They had many common meals'. G. Hermansen, Ostia: Aspects of Roman City Life (Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1981), p. 110. 81. In 7 QM and 1 QpHab, the chief worldly allies of Beliar are the ' Kittim'.

For a thorough analysis of why people in Asia Minor participated in the imperial cult, see Price, Rituals and Power, pp. 234-48. 19. See pp. 123-41. 20. Tertullian understood Rev. 4 as a call for Christians to distance themselves from Rome: 'From so much as a dwelling in that Babylon [Rome] of John's Revelation we are called away'. De Cor. 13. 21. Cf. Jer. ' Jeremiah directed this call to Jews intimately involved with Babylon. Similarly, John seems to evoke the message of Jeremiah to address Christians intimately involved with the 'Babylon' (Rome) of his day.

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