By Richard Warburton

If you are a developer with middle Java SE abilities, this hands-on ebook takes you thru the language adjustments in Java eight brought on by way of the addition of lambda expressions. you are going to examine via code examples, routines, and fluid motives how those nameless capabilities can help you write uncomplicated, fresh, library-level code that solves enterprise difficulties. Lambda expressions are a reasonably uncomplicated swap to Java, and the 1st a part of the e-book indicates you ways to exploit them appropriately. Later chapters convey you the way lambda services assist you increase functionality with parallelism, write easier concurrent code, and version your area extra safely, together with construction greater DSLs.

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Example 3-7. Sample output showing the members of The Beatles being printed John Lennon Paul McCartney George Harrison Ringo Starr It’s very easy to figure out whether an operation is eager or lazy: look at what it returns. If it gives you back a Stream, it’s lazy; if it gives you back another value or void, then it’s eager. This makes sense because the preferred way of using these methods is to form a sequence of lazy operations chained together and then to have a single eager operation at the end that generates your result.

Example 3-12. collect(toList()); assertEquals(asList(1, 2, 3, 4), together); In each case, we replace the List with a Stream using the stream method, and flat Map does the rest. Its associated functional interface is the same as map’s—the Function —but its return type is restricted to streams and not any value. max and min A pretty common operation that we might want to perform on streams is finding the maximum or minimum element. Fortunately, this case is very well covered by the max and min operations that are provided by the Streams API.

It’s worth taking a moment to look at what’s going on under the hood here. The first step in this process is a call to the iterator method, which creates a new Iterator object in order to control the iteration process. We call this external iteration. The iteration then proceeds by explicitly calling the hasNext and next methods on this Iterator. Example 3-2 demonstrates the expanded code in full, and Figure 3-1 shows the pattern of method calls that happen. Example 3-2. isFrom("London")) { count++; } } Figure 3-1.

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