By Brian Roberts

A complete research of the background and devel- opment of rural cost in either the constructed and constructing worlds. entire with specific case reviews and entirely illustrated, this can be crucial studying for all geographers and archaeologists. ebook conceal; identify; Contents; record of plates; record of figures; advent; payment landscapes; Nucleation and dispersion; Explanatory contexts; residence and farmstead; payment varieties; payment styles; payment platforms: a global view; References; Index

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Extra resources for Landscapes of settlement : prehistory to the present

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It is exciting, because questions are always more exciting than answers, for they represent challenges. What is certain is that in none of these cases is there a simple land/settlement relationship wholly determined by physical circumstances. These three national distributions give a feeling of the sheer scale and diversity of the earth’s settlement mantle and serve to emphasise the diversity of factors which must be taken into account within explanations. Two fundamental approaches must now be assessed; first, given that physical factors are undoubtedly of prime importance in framing the general presence or absence of settlement in three contrasting environments, sometimes attracting, sometimes repelling, their role must be considered in rather more detail.

However, if the peripheral farmer shares the burdens of the village, helps pay the taxes, has arable lands intermixed with those of neighbours, then his farmstead is part of that village community, irrespective of its precise geographical location. Furthermore, participation in the seasonal cycles of activity and bonds of blood and marriage may draw a farmer into the social life of that settlement’s community, even if the farm lands are wholly concentrated some distance away around the homestead.

The Bahima of north-east Uganda, an upland plateau environment with plenty of grass, are semi-nomadic, moving their kraals every two years, not to seek pasture but to seek water, to try to escape disease and to comply with a custom of abandoning a place where an adult has died and is buried, a telling mixture of practical and psychological needs. 1), while a second two, dispersion and nucleation, are more broadly descriptive of the character of settlement and may be used in varied contexts. Pattern is applied to the distribution of the varied elements of settlement—individual farmsteads, hamlets, villages, market towns or a mixture of all types—throughout a landscape or a region.

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