By P. A. Liebman (auth.), S. Robert Hilfer, Joel B. Sheffield (eds.)

The 7th Symposium on Ocular and visible improvement was once held in October, 1982. the purpose of the assembly was once to strengthen a large viewpoint on visible acuity. the topic used to be mentioned firstly when it comes to molecular occasions of photoreception, and the metabolism of the photoreceptor ele­ ments. next papers offered the advance and complexity of the neurocircuitry and transmitter structures within the retina that method the visible details ahead of move to the mind. The assembly concluded with a chain of papers on behavioral and physiological equipment of mea­ surement of visible acuity in people, really children. This quantity arose from the papers offered on the assembly. We suppose that the juxtaposition of study of commonly differing methodologies can be stim­ ulating, instead of daunting, and should generate an stronger comprehend­ ing of this complicated topic. we're indebted to our colleagues: Dr. M. Mote from Temple college, and Drs. J. Siegfried, P. Dayhaw-Barker, and L. Press from the Pennsylvania collage of Optometry for his or her services and advice within the association of the assembly; to the audio system for his or her shows and contributions to this quantity; and to the reviewers of the manuscripts for his or her necessary reviews. This symposium couldn't were held with no the beneficiant aid of the Temple collage university of Arts and Sciences and the Pennsyl­ vania university of Optometry. We additionally thank Merck, Sharp and Dohme, Inc. for his or her donation.

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Specific activity of rod outer segment (ROS) phosphatidylcholine as a function of the light cycle. Rat retinas were incubated at the indicated times with (3 H) glycerol. ROS were prepared and the phospholipids separated as described in Methods. Disintegrations/min (DPM)/~g phosphorus (P) are plotted against clock hours. The error lines around each point represent the standard deviation of the determinations. The shaded area represents the period of darkness. lipids were chromatographed as before.

B. E. Anderson. 1982. Membrane addi tion to rod photoreceptor outer segments: light stimulates membrane assembly in the absence of increased membrane biosynthesis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22: 417-427. M. 1976. Rod outer segment disc shedding in rat retina: relationship to cyclic lighting. Science 194: 1071-1073. M. 1980. Circadian nature of rod outer segment disc shedding in the rat. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19: 407411. , K. G. Muellenberg, H. Shichi and A. Kobata. 1979. Structure of the carbohydrate moieties of bovine rhodopsin.

Cellular mechanisms underlying the changes in retinal morphology have not been studied in detail. However, preliminary evidence indicates that microtubules and microfilaments may be involved. At night, injection behind the cornea of a microtubular inhibitor, vinblastine, decreases retinal sensitivity and changes retinal morphology toward the daytime state. During the day the same injection increases retinal sensitivity and changes retinal morphology toward the nighttime state. Both injections produce approximately the same sensitivity levels and morphological changes which are intermediate to the normal daytime and nighttime states.

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