By Gregory C. Kozlowski

Dr Kozlowski's vital research pioneers a clean method of the examine of a serious Muslim establishment: the endowments or awqaf which nearly all over the Islamic global supply aid for mosques, faculties and shrines. The wealthier Muslims who identify endowments unavoidably have an eye fixed on social, political and financial stipulations and feature regularly used awqaf as a part of an attempt to maintain their wealth and effect, particularly during periods of swap and uncertainty. The e-book specializes in using endowments by way of Muslims agony the dislocations as a result of the imposition of British rule in India and examines intimately the social and political implications of the debate over endowments that happened within the imperial courts and councils. The author's observations and insights could be utilized to many sessions and areas within the Muslim global and his novel process will allure all these drawn to the examine of Islam.

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Obviously, forty was too small a sample to develop statistical arguments about India's Muslims as a whole. Even so, each endowment had a story to tell about the people who founded it and whose lives were affected by its existence. The material collected from them was sug­ gestive rather than statistically conclusive. They spoke of the way in which their founders thought of themselves, of the values they professed and the problems they faced. The British system of law, land tenure and administration created some of those difficulties.

Muslim endowments in India 27 the state and local gentry identified wealth with the cash or goods land generated. The importance of trade in Mughal times reinforced the cultural and political notion that wealth consisted of some form of moveable prop­ erty. No clear boundary existed between political-military leaders and merchants. Emperors and nobles had no aversion to commerce. The men and women of the imperial household invested in and profited from merchant enterprise. Also, those who derived their wealth from trade were frequently allied to the state and played the same cultural game of aping the emperor.

In those cases the word "waqj'' was still used even though referring to a non-Muslim institution. 38 Hindus picked up the terminology and some­ times employed it to describe their own endowments. 39 Awqaf provided funds for public graveyards, but the affluent also used them to build and maintain their tombs. For instance, when the emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in the 1640s, he established several endowments to take care of its upkeep. 40 Based on the income from the revenues supplied by a number of villages as well as on the rents charged to shopkeepers who set up stalls in the tomb's precincts, they supplied salaries for the attendants and for the ceremonies marking Mumtaz Mahal's death anniversary.

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