By Charles Hartshorne

Transcripts of 4 Morse lectures givenat Union Theological seminary in 1964.

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Not that we help God to be virtuous-this would indeed be absurd. But we may contribute to the richness of his 'happiness', the beauty of the contents of his always perfectly righteous experience. Our ancestors were afflicted with a subtle egoism. They wanted to serve God everlastingly, but with the understanding that he also would serve them everlastingly. A fair bargain, as it were! However, since their logic was confused enough to permit them at the same time to deny divine receptivity, they were really saying that while God would everlastingly serve them, they could do nothing for him, since he is immune to gifts, or to being enhanced or influenced in any way, an absolute marvel of selfsufficiency and indifference.

But only deity provides a clear meaning for immortality. And only an allloving deity whom all may love can provide nondivine individuals, even though vicariously, with permanent achievement for their effort. This is so, not because of contingent features of our world, but because in any world God alone could and would be universally loving, universally lovable, and everlasting. The Theistic Proofs 57 Nontheistic substitutes for a divine orderer and a divine immortalizer of achievements seem but makeshifts.

This is the question of natural theology, and one not clearly envisaged in the classical discussions. Not having been envisaged it can hardly have been answered. If the idea of God is to have a rational place among our ideas, four conditions must be satisfied. (1) There must be rules or principles valid for all individuals, not excluding God, rules definitive of individuality purely in general, or as a 'transcendental'. (2) There must be rules valid for all individuals except God, rules definitive of 'non-Divine individual', or of individuality as a secular or nontranscendental category.

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