By H. Charnock (auth.), Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, Allan R. Robinson (eds.)

One of the main the most important yet nonetheless very poorly understood subject matters of oceanographic technology is the function of ocean tactics in contributing to the dynamics of weather and worldwide switch. This e-book offers a sequence of excessive point lectures at the significant different types of ocean/atmosphere methods. 3 of those significant matters are the focal point of the lectures: (1) air--sea interplay approaches; (2) water mass formation, dispersion and combining; (3) basic movement, with particular emphasis at the thermohaline part. international examples on this planet ocean are supplied and mentioned within the lectures. In parallel, the Mediterranean Sea is a laboratory basin in offering analogues of the above international tactics suitable to weather dynamics. They contain the Mediterranean thermohaline flow with its personal `conveyor belt'; intermediate and deep water mass formation and alterations, dispersion and combining. No different ebook within the box offers a evaluation of basic lectures on those strategies, coupled with worldwide examples and their Mediterranean analogues.

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Jacobwitz .. 0 3= c.. 0 t: 0 c. 0 -.. 0 t: co . Net energy transport constraint estimated from ERBE data for April, July, October 1985 and January 1986. Other satellite estimates from Vander Haar Ellis (1974), Ellis & Vander Haar (1976), Gruber (1978), Jacobowitz ~ (19791. (from Barkstrom ~, 1990). 0 cr Cl. 5 ~ I cr 0 z -- ~_ 0 -10 /' ..... i8E WHG! Estimates of annual meridional heat transport by the Pacific calculated from surface heat flux estimates by various authors. The heat transport at 60 0 N is assumed to be zero.

0- ,. 20°'" '" 14 Figure 9. Zonal averages of incoming and outgoing radiation, June 1 1976 to May 31 1977. (from NOAA-NESS, 1979). upward. It is less obvious that the ocean is thermodynamically active in the same way: it is at least partially wind-driven, the energy exchanges are at about the same pressure, meridional boundaries complicate the argument involving the conservation of angular momentum. 1 O. The net flux was obtained from radiation calculations by Houghton (1954), the ocean flux from the estimates of the heat balance of the sea surface by Budyko (1956) and the latent heat flux from his estimates of E-P.

Eady, E. T. (1950) 'The cause of the general circulation of the atmosphere' Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. , 101, 147-161. S. H. Vonder Haar (1976) 'Zonal average Earth radiation budget measurement from satellites for climate studies', Atmos. Sci. Pap. 240, 58pp, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Emig, M. (1967) 'Heat transport by ocean currents', J. Geophys. , 72, 2519-2539. K. and Y. Kushnir (1981) 'The heat budget of the global ocean : an atlas based on estimates from surface marine observations' Report No.

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