By Leo Apostel (auth.), Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (eds.)

In June 22-27,1970, a global operating Symposium on Pragmatics of common Languages happened in Jerusalem lower than the auspices of The Israel Academy of Sciences and arts and the department of good judgment, method and Philosophy of technological know-how of the overseas Union of historical past and Philosophy of Science.! a few thirty philosophers, logicians, linguists, and psychologists from Israel, united states, West-Germany, England, Belgium, France, Scotland, and Denmark met in seven formal and a few casual classes with a view to speak about a few ofthe difficulties round the use and acquisition oflanguage which within the eyes of a growing number of students were left lower than­ taken care of within the contemporary upsurge ofinterest in theoretical linguistics and philos­ ophy of language. extra in particular, through the formal classes the next subject matters have been mentioned: The validity of the syntactics-seman tics-pragmatics trichotomy the current country of the competence-performance factor common sense and linguistics the hot Rhetoric Speech acts Language acquisition. The contributors within the Symposium disbursed between themselves re­ prints and preprints of appropriate fabric, partially prior to the assembly, partially at its starting. every one consultation was once brought by means of one or modera­ tors, and summaries of every day's court cases have been ready and distri­ buted tomorrow. The contributors have been invited to publish papers after the symposium, written lower than its impression. The 11 essays released listed below are the result.

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6 7 8 NIELS EGMONT CHRISTENSEN REMARKS ON LOGIC AS UNIVERSAL SEMANTICS Some, or perhaps all, of those who met in Jerusalem in June 1970 to discuss the pragmatics of natural languages may have wondered what they, in their particular capacity, could contribute to this kind of study of language. At least such wondering is a natural and happy result of the challenge offered by different approaches to the same subject. The following will contain reflections stimulated by this challenge to me as a participant in my capacity as a philosopher.

We use funda- 30 LEO APOSTEL mental concepts (representation, equivalence, reducibility) of automata theory and we can go on looking for specifications of f. Combining our last remarks we now stipulate that a speaker or hearer is to be a non-f-reduced automaton that is itself the direct product under rp and t/J of a set of automata and that stands in a partial superposition relation to another automaton equally not j-reduced, and equally a direct product under rp and t/J. Pragmatics, if we accept this definition of the speaker-hearer relation, is the study of the structure of the intersection of the output set of Sand the input set of H, as a consequence of the existence of the relations and requirements in this definition.

Putting the question in this form immediately suggests that there are such universal conditions and that we are able to formulate at least some of them by application of the transcendental method. How, on the other hand, universality in the sense of 'necessary allness' could be established without the use of some such method is a bit more difficult to comprehend. Noone will deny, however, that in using this method we tread on dangerous ground, and that we may easily be tempted to irresponsible use of a powerful argument.

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